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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 351281, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/351281
Research Article

Falciparum Malaria as an Emerging Cause of Fever in Adults Living in Gabon, Central Africa

1Department of Parasitology Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Université des Sciences de la Santé, BP 4009 Libreville, Gabon
2Malaria Clinical and Operational Research Unit, Regional Hospital of Melen, Libreville, Gabon
3Emergency Unit, Centre Hospitalier de Libreville, Libreville, Gabon

Received 18 October 2013; Revised 4 March 2014; Accepted 8 April 2014; Published 30 April 2014

Academic Editor: Seth Owusu-Agyei

Copyright © 2014 Marielle K. Bouyou-Akotet et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Following the observed increase of malaria prevalence among older children in Gabon, a descriptive observational study was carried out in 2012 to determine the prevalence of malaria in adults presenting with fever in two health centres of Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Thick- and thin-blood smears for malaria diagnosis were performed in febrile individuals aged more than 15 years old. Age, use of bed nets, previous antimalarial drug treatment, clinical symptoms, chest radiography results, and available haemoglobin data were also recorded. Among the 304 patients screened, the global malaria frequency was of 42.1% . Plasmodium (P). falciparum was the only species identified. The proportion of patients with a clinical malaria requiring parenteral treatment was 38.5%, whereas 47.5% of outpatients had uncomplicated malaria. According to WHO classification, 14 (19.7%) infected patients had severe malaria; neurological and respiratory symptoms tended to be more frequent in case of P. falciparum infection. Anaemia was found in 51.5% adults and none had severe anaemia. Almost half of adults consulting for fever in two health centres of the urban city of Libreville have malaria. The use of insecticide-treated bed nets, the screening, and the treatment of individuals with P. falciparum microscopic and submicroscopic asymptomatic infection or clinical malaria should be emphasized to reduce the transmission.