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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 353845, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/353845
Research Article

Biocatalytic Synthesis of Flavor Ester “Pentyl Valerate” Using Candida rugosa Lipase Immobilized in Microemulsion Based Organogels: Effect of Parameters and Reusability

1BRD School of Biosciences, Sardar Patel Maidan, Sardar Patel University, Satellite Campus, Vadtal Road, P.O. Box 39, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat 388120, India
2Department of Statistics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat 388120, India

Received 28 February 2014; Revised 5 May 2014; Accepted 19 May 2014; Published 1 July 2014

Academic Editor: Yunjun Yan

Copyright © 2014 Tripti Raghavendra et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Supplementary Material

In Table S1, the Wo and Po values are important parameters describing the reverse micelles structure. Wo refers to the ratio of concentration of water to that of concentration of surfactant ([water] : [surfactant]) and Po refers to the ratio of concentration of cosurfactant to that of concentration of surfactant ([cosurfactant] : [surfactant]). Present results showed that reverse micelles prepared using AOT and CTAB displayed the highest Wo values using all the three solvents used.

In Table S2, ANOVA or analysis of variance shows that all the regression terms, that is, linear, square, and interaction, were found to be statistically highly significant (P=0.000). The lack of fit was insignificant and, hence, the second order regression surface model was satisfactorily significant. The coefficient of determination was R2 = 0.90 indicating that the model can explain about 90% of variability and, hence, it is adequate enough to present the true relationship between the variables and the response.

In Table S3, the MBGs containing lipase were applied for catalyzing esterification reaction in organic solvents. Water is formed as a byproduct of esterification reaction and accumulates within MBGs. After few cycles of reaction, significant amount of water is accumulated within MBGs resulting in the slowing down of ester formation. Hence, this excess water was extracted using a dehydrant solution, that is, 1M AOT/isooctane. The reused, untreated, and treated MBGs were analyzed using Karl-Fischer analysis and TGA for water content. Table S2 displays that the AOT/isooctane treatment was effective in extracting excess water from reused MBGs.

In Figure S1, straight chain n-alkanes and their cyclic counterparts were compared as medium for esterification reaction using lipase immobilized in MBGs. The figure shows that each cyclic alkane assisted in higher ester production when compared to the corresponding straight chain alkane.

  1. Supplementary Materials