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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 354260, 16 pages
Research Article

Influence of Heating and Cyclic Tension on the Induction of Heat Shock Proteins and Bone-Related Proteins by MC3T3-E1 Cells

1Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, ICTAS Building, Stanger Street (MC 0298), Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, ICTAS Building, Stanger Street (MC 0298), Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA

Received 14 December 2013; Revised 25 March 2014; Accepted 26 March 2014; Published 11 June 2014

Academic Editor: Yin Xiao

Copyright © 2014 Eunna Chung et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Stress conditioning (e.g., thermal, shear, and tensile stress) of bone cells has been shown to enhance healing. However, prior studies have not investigated whether combined stress could synergistically promote bone regeneration. This study explored the impact of combined thermal and tensile stress on the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and bone-related proteins by a murine preosteoblast cell line (MC3T3-E1). Cells were exposed to thermal stress using a water bath (44°C for 4 or 8 minutes) with postheating incubation (37°C for 4 hours) followed by exposure to cyclic strain (equibiaxial 3%, 0.2 Hz, cycle of 10-second tensile stress followed by 10-second rest). Combined thermal stress and tensile stress induced mRNA expression of HSP27 (1.41 relative fold induction (RFI) compared to sham-treated control), HSP70 (5.55 RFI), and osteopontin (1.44 RFI) but suppressed matrix metalloproteinase-9 (0.6 RFI) compared to the control. Combined thermal and tensile stress increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion into the culture supernatant (1.54-fold increase compared to the control). Therefore, combined thermal and mechanical stress preconditioning can enhance HSP induction and influence protein expression important for bone tissue healing.