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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 410472, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/410472
Research Article

A Preliminary Study of the Influence of Age of Onset and Childhood Trauma on Cortical Thickness in Major Depressive Disorder

1Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education, Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, TRW Building, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4Z6
2Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4N1
3Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, 2888 Shaganappi Trail NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T3B 6A8
4Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary, 2888 Shaganappi Trail NW, Calgary, Canada T3B 6A8
5The Seaman Family Centre, University of Calgary, Foothills Medical Centre, 1403-29th Street NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 2T9
6Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Foothills Medical Centre, 1403-29th Street NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 2T9

Received 5 November 2013; Revised 17 January 2014; Accepted 21 January 2014; Published 6 March 2014

Academic Editor: Georg Northoff

Copyright © 2014 Natalia Jaworska et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD) neural underpinnings may differ based on onset age and childhood trauma. We assessed cortical thickness in patients who differed in age of MDD onset and examined trauma history influence. Methods. Adults with MDD () and controls (HC; ) underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty patients had MDD onset 24 years of age (pediatric onset) and 16 had onset 25 years of age (adult onset). The MDD group was also subdivided into those with () and without () physical and/or sexual abuse as assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Cortical thickness was analyzed with FreeSurfer software. Results. Thicker frontal pole and a tendency for thinner transverse temporal cortices existed in MDD. The former was driven by the pediatric onset group and abuse history (independently), particularly in the right frontal pole. Inverse correlations existed between CTQ scores and frontal pole cortex thickness. A similar inverse relation existed with left inferior and right superior parietal cortex thickness. The superior temporal cortex tended to be thinner in pediatric versus adult onset groups with childhood abuse. Conclusions. This preliminary work suggests neural differences between pediatric and adult MDD onset. Trauma history also contributes to cytoarchitectural modulation. Thickened frontal pole cortices as a compensatory mechanism in MDD warrant evaluation.