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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 413150, 6 pages
Research Article

Nutritional Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

1Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Straße 62, 50924 Cologne, Germany
2Department of Ophthalmology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein-Zuid 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
3Institute of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Epidemiology, University of Cologne, Kerpener Straße 62, 50924 Cologne, Germany

Received 8 April 2014; Accepted 16 June 2014; Published 3 July 2014

Academic Editor: Alfredo García-Layana

Copyright © 2014 Lebriz Ersoy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. To evaluate the role of nutritional factors, serum lipids, and lipoproteins in late age-related macular degeneration (late AMD). Methods. Intake of red meat, fruit, fish, vegetables, and alcohol, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) were ascertained questionnaire-based in 1147 late AMD cases and 1773 controls from the European Genetic Database. Serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins were determined. The relationship between nutritional factors and late AMD was assessed using logistic regression. Based on multivariate analysis, area-under-the-curve (AUC) was calculated by receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC). Results. In a multivariate analysis, besides age and smoking, obesity (odds ratio (OR): 1.44, ) and red meat intake (daily: OR: 2.34, ; 2–6x/week: OR: 1.67, ) were identified as risk factors for developing late AMD. Fruit intake showed a protective effect (daily: OR: 0.52, ; 2–6x/week: OR: 0.58, ). Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels showed no significant association with late AMD. ROC for nutritional factors, smoking, age, and BMI revealed an AUC of 0.781. Conclusion. Red meat intake and obesity were independently associated with increased risk for late AMD, whereas fruit intake was protective. A better understanding of nutritional risk factors is necessary for the prevention of AMD.