Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 413249, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/413249
Research Article

Increased Serum Levels of Inflammatory Mediators and Low Frequency of Regulatory T Cells in the Peripheral Blood of Preeclamptic Mexican Women

1Immunobiology Laboratory, Hospital Juárez de México, Ministry of Health, 07760 Mexico City, Mexico
2Research Directorate, Hospital Juárez de México, Ministry of Health, 07760 Mexico City, Mexico
3Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Hospital Juárez de México, Ministry of Health, 07760 Mexico City, Mexico

Received 2 July 2014; Accepted 15 September 2014; Published 7 December 2014

Academic Editor: Gail B. Mahady

Copyright © 2014 Mario Adan Moreno-Eutimio et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Noris, N. Perico, and G. Remuzzi, “Mechanisms of disease: pre-eclampsia,” Nature clinical practice. Nephrology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 98–114, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. N. Sánchez-Rodríguez, S. Nava-Salazar, C. Morán, J. F. Romero-Arauz, and M. A. Cerbón-Cervantes, “The two leading hypothesis regarding the molecular mechanisms and etiology of preeclampsia, and the Mexican experience in the world context,” Revista de Investigacion Clinica, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 252–260, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. O. Basso, S. Rasmussen, C. R. Weinberg, A. J. Wilcox, L. M. Irgens, and R. Skjaerven, “Trends in fetal and infant survival following preeclampsia,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 296, no. 11, pp. 1357–1362, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Molvarec, Á. Vér, A. Fekete et al., “Association between estrogen receptor α (ESR1) gene polymorphisms and severe preeclampsia,” Hypertension Research, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 205–211, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Molvarec, Á. Jermendy, B. Nagy et al., “Association between tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α G-308A gene polymorphism and preeclampsia complicated by severe fetal growth restriction,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 392, no. 1-2, pp. 52–57, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. Rosta, A. Molvarec, A. Enzsoly et al., “Association of extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) Ala40Thr gene polymorphism with pre-eclampsia complicated by severe fetal growth restriction,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 142, no. 2, pp. 134–138, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. C. Serrano, “Immunology and genetic of preeclampsia,” Clinical and Developmental Immunology, vol. 13, no. 2-4, pp. 197–201, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Erlebacher, “Immunology of the maternal-fetal interface,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 31, pp. 387–411, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. G. Harrison, T. J. Guzik, H. E. Lob et al., “Inflammation, immunity, and hypertension,” Hypertension, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 132–140, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. Ohkura, Y. Kitagawa, and S. Sakaguchi, “Development and maintenance of regulatory T cells,” Immunity, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 414–423, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. D. Fontenot, M. A. Gavin, and A. Y. Rudensky, “Foxp3 programs the development and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells,” Nature Immunology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 330–336, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. V. R. Aluvihare, M. Kallikourdis, and A. G. Betz, “Regulatory T cells mediate maternal tolerance to the fetus,” Nature Immunology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 266–271, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Verlohren, D. N. Muller, F. C. Luft, and R. Dechend, “Immunology in hypertension, preeclampsia, and target-organ damage,” Hypertension, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 439–443, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Zlotnik and O. Yoshie, “The Chemokine Superfamily Revisited,” Immunity, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 705–712, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. F. Azizieh, R. Raghupathy, and M. Makhseed, “Maternal cytokine production patterns in women with pre-eclampsia,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 30–37, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Szarka, J. Rigo Jr., L. Lazar, G. Beko, and A. Molvarec, “Circulating cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia determined by multiplex suspension array,” BMC Immunology, vol. 11, article 59, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Molvarec, A. Szarka, S. Walentin et al., “Serum leptin levels in relation to circulating cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and angiogenic factors in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia,” Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, vol. 9, article 124, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Saito, Y. Sasaki, and M. Sakai, “CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells in human pregnancy,” Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 111–120, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Steinborn, G. M. Haensch, K. Mahnke et al., “Distinct subsets of regulatory T cells during pregnancy: Is the imbalance of these subsets involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia?” Clinical Immunology, vol. 129, no. 3, pp. 401–412, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. R. Prins, H. M. Boelens, J. Heimweg et al., “Preeclampsia is associated with lower percentages of regulatory T cells in maternal blood,” Hypertension in Pregnancy, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 300–311, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Y. Sasaki, D. Darmochwal-Kolarz, D. Suzuki et al., “Proportion of peripheral blood and decidual CD4+ CD25bright regulatory T cells in pre-eclampsia,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 149, no. 1, pp. 139–145, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. Darmochwal-Kolarz, S. Saito, J. Rolinski et al., “Activated T lymphocytes in pre-eclampsia,” The American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 39–45, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. Toldi, J. Rigo Jr., B. Stenczer, B. Vasarhelyi, and A. Molvarec, “Increased prevalence of IL-17-producing peripheral blood lymphocytes in pre-eclampsia,” The American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 223–229, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Toldi, S. Saito, T. Shima et al., “The frequency of peripheral blood CD4+ CD25high FoxP3+ and CD4+ CD25- FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia,” The American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 175–180, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. Hu, Y. Chen, W. Zhang, H. Wang, Z. Wang, and M. Dong, “Alteration of peripheral CD4+CD25+ regulatory T lymphocytes in pregnancy and pre-eclampsia,” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 190–194, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Paeschke, F. Chen, N. Horn et al., “Pre-eclampsia is not associated with changes in the levels of regulatory T cells in peripheral blood,” The American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 384–389, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Knuist, G. J. Bonsel, H. A. Zondervan, and P. E. Treffers, “Risk factors for preeclampsia in nulliparous women in distinct ethnic groups: a prospective cohort study,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 174–178, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Gong, D. A. Savitz, C. R. Stein, and S. M. Engel, “Maternal ethnicity and pre-eclampsia in New York City, 1995–2003,” Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 45–52, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. A. Brown, M. D. Lindheimer, M. de Swiet, A. van Assche, and J. M. Moutquin, “The classification and diagnosis of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: statement from the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP),” Hypertension in Pregnancy, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Molvarec, A. Szarka, S. Walentin, E. Szucs, B. Nagy, and J. Rigó, “Circulating angiogenic factors determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay in relation to the clinical features and laboratory parameters in women with pre-eclampsia,” Hypertension Research, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 892–898, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. A. Somerset, Y. Zheng, M. D. Kilby, D. M. Sansom, and M. T. Drayson, “Normal human pregnancy is associated with an elevation in the immune suppressive CD25 + CD4 + regulatory T-cell subset,” Immunology, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 38–43, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Erlebacher, “Mechanisms of T cell tolerance towards the allogeneic fetus,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 23–33, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. U. G. Svendsen, “Evidence for an initial, thymus independent and a chronic, thymus dependent phase of DOCA and salt hypertension in mice,” Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica—Section A Pathology, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 523–528, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. LaMarca, J. Speed, L. F. Ray et al., “Hypertension in response to IL-6 during pregnancy: role of AT1-receptor activation,” International Journal of Interferon, Cytokine and Mediator Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 65–70, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. S. Purcell and V. H. Gattone II, “Immune system of the spontaneously hypertensive rat I. Sympathetic innervation,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 44–50, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. J. Lockwood, C.-F. Yen, M. Basar et al., “Preeclampsia-related inflammatory cytokines regulate interleukin-6 expression in human decidual cells,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 172, no. 6, pp. 1571–1579, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Y. Wang, J. Baier, C. D. Adair et al., “Interleukin-8 stimulates placental prostacyclin production in preeclampsia,” The American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 375–380, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Tosun, H. Celik, B. Avci, E. Yavuz, T. Alper, and E. Malatyalioğlu, “Maternal and umbilical serum levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α in normal pregnancies and in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia,” Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 880–886, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. F. Gotsch, R. Romero, L. Friel et al., “CXCL10/IP-10: a missing link between inflammation and anti-angiogenesis in preeclampsia?” Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 777–792, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Kalkunte, T. Nevers, W. E. Norris, and S. Sharma, “Vascular IL-10: a protective role in preeclampsia,” Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 165–169, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus