Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 425070, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/425070
Research Article

Micronuclei in Bone Marrow and Liver in relation to Hepatic Metabolism and Antioxidant Response due to Coexposure to Chloroform, Dichloromethane, and Toluene in the Rat Model

1Departamento de Medicina Genómica y Toxicología Ambiental, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70228, 04510 México, DF, Mexico
2Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Juan Badiano No. 1, Tlalpan, 14080 México, DF, Mexico
3Laboratorio de Neuroquímica, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Insurgentes Sur 3700-C, 04530 México, DF, Mexico

Received 28 January 2014; Accepted 24 March 2014; Published 14 May 2014

Academic Editor: Masood Ahmad

Copyright © 2014 Javier Belmont-Díaz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. M. J. Bos, M. J. Zeilmaker, and J. C. H. van Eijkeren, “Application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in setting acute exposure guideline levels for methylene chloride,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 576–585, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. D. Hayes, J. U. Flanagan, and I. R. Jowsey, “Glutathione transferases,” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 45, pp. 51–88, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. Watanabe, R. G. Liberman, P. L. Skipper, S. R. Tannenbaum, and F. P. Guengerich, “Analysis of DNA adducts formed in vivo in rats and mice from 1,2-dibromoethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, dibromomethane, and dichloromethane using HPLC/accelerator mass spectrometry and relevance to risk estimates,” Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1594–1600, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. J. Beddowes, S. P. Faux, and J. K. Chipman, “Chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and glutathione depletion induce secondary genotoxicity in liver cells via oxidative stress,” Toxicology, vol. 187, no. 2-3, pp. 101–115, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. Mansuy, P. Beaune, T. Cresteil, M. Lange, and J. P. Leroux, “Evidence for phosgene formation during liver microsomal oxidation of chloroform,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 513–517, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. F. Sasso, P. M. Schlosser, G. L. Kedderis et al., “Application of an updated physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for chloroform to evaluate CYP2E1-mediated renal toxicity in rats and mice,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 131, no. 2, pp. 360–374, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. S. Gemma, L. Vittozzi, and E. Testai, “Metabolism of chloroform in the human liver and identification of the competent P450s,” Drug Metabolism & Disposition, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 266–274, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. Nakajima, R.-S. Wang, E. Elovaara et al., “Toluene metabolism by cDNA-expressed human hepatic cytochrome P450,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 271–277, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. J. Mattia, S. F. Ali, and S. C. Bondy, “Toluene-induced oxidative stress in several brain regions and other organs,” Molecular and Chemical Neuropathology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 313–328, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. G. Bird, B. A. Wetmore, D. J. Letinski et al., “Influence of toluene co-exposure on the metabolism and genotoxicity of benzene in mice using continuous and intermittent exposures,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 184, no. 1-2, pp. 233–239, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. CONAGUA, “Evaluación del riesgo sanitario ambiental de las zonas aledañas al Río Atoyac,” Resumen ejecutivo, 2008.
  12. R. Montero, L. Serrano, A. Araujo et al., “Increased cytogenetic damage in a zone in transition from agricultural to industrial use: comprehensive analysis of the micronucleus test in peripheral blood lymphocytes,” Mutagenesis, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 335–342, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. F. P. Guengerich, D.-H. Kim, and M. Iwasaki, “Role of human cytochrome P-450 IIE1 in the oxidation of many low molecular weight cancer suspects,” Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 168–179, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. W. Tassaneeyakul, D. J. Birkett, J. W. Edwards et al., “Human cytochrome P450 isoform specificity in the regioselective metabolism of toluene and o-, m- and p-xylene,” The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 276, no. 1, pp. 101–108, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Y. Sun, M. Ingelman-Sundberg, E. Neve et al., “Ethanol and oxidative stress,” Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, vol. 25, supplement 1, pp. 237S–243S, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Ingelman-Sundberg and I. Johansson, “Mechanisms of hydroxyl radical formation and ethanol oxidation by ethanol-inducible and other forms of rabbit liver microsomal cytochromes P-450,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 259, no. 10, pp. 6447–6458, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. L. Shelton and G. Slavova-Hernandez, “Characterization of an inhaled toluene drug discrimination in mice: effect of exposure conditions and route of administration,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 614–620, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. EPA USA, “Ambient Water Quality Criterion for the Protection of Human Health: Chloroform Revised Draft,” EPA-822-R-04-002, 2003.
  19. EPA USA, “Toxicological Review of Toluene,” EPA/635/R-05/004, 2005.
  20. EPA USA, “Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane,” EPA/635/R-10/003F, 2011.
  21. K. Fujie, T. Aoki, and M. Wada, “Acute and subacute cytogenetic effects of the trihalomethanes on rat bone marrow cells in vivo,” Mutation Research, vol. 242, no. 2, pp. 111–119, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. K. Rozman and C. D. Klaassen, “Absorption, distribution, and excretion of toxicants,” in Casarett & Doull’s Essentials of Toxicology, C. D. Klaassen and J. B. Watkins III, Eds., pp. 59–70, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  23. M. Paolini, R. Mesirca, L. Pozzetti, G. L. Biagi, and G. Cantelli-Forti, “Selective induction of murine liver cytochrome P450 IIB1 by halogenated hydrocarbons,” Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, vol. 36, no. 3-4, pp. 235–249, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. Y. C. Kim, “Dichloromethane potentiation of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in rats,” Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 138–141, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. Gocke, M.-T. King, K. Eckhardt, and D. Wild, “Mutagenicity of cosmetics ingredients licensed by the European Communities,” Mutation Research, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 91–109, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. Westbrook-Collins, J. W. Allen, Y. Sharief, and J. Campbell, “Further evidence that dichloromethane does not induce chromosome damage,” Journal of Applied Toxicology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 79–81, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P.-Y. Wang, T. Kaneko, H. Tsukada, M. Nakano, and A. Sato, “Dose- and route-dependent alterations in metabolism and toxicity of chemical compounds in ethanol-treated rats: difference between highly (chloroform) and poorly (carbon tetrachloride) metabolized hepatotoxic compounds,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 13–21, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Rossi, S. Gemma, L. Fabrizi, E. Testai, and L. Vittozzi, “Time dependence of chloroform-induced metabolic alterations in the liver and kidney of B6C3F1 mice,” Archives of Toxicology, vol. 73, no. 7, pp. 387–393, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. González-Jasso, T. López, D. Lucas et al., “CYP2E1 regulation by benzene and other small organic chemicals in rat liver and peripheral lymphocytes,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 55–67, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. E. Hurst and M. Y. Ali, “Analyses of (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane headspace and hemoglobin N-valine adducts in erythrocytes indicate selective detoxification of (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane enantiomers,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 166, no. 1–3, pp. 332–340, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Roh, Y. H. Moon, and K. Y. Kim, “The cytogenetic effects of benzene and toluene on bone marrow cells in rats,” Yonsei Medical Journal, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 297–309, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. Krishna and M. Hayashi, “In vivo rodent micronucleus assay: protocol, conduct and data interpretation,” Mutation Research, vol. 455, no. 1-2, pp. 155–166, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. W. Parton and M. L. Garriott, “An evaluation of micronucleus induction in bone marrow and in hepatocytes isolated from collagenase perfused liver or from formalin-fixed liver using four-week-old rats treated with known clastogens,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 379–385, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  34. P. E. Thomas, S. Bandiera, S. L. Maines, D. E. Ryan, and W. Levin, “Regulation of cytochrome P-450j, a high-affinity N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase, in rat hepatic microsomes,” Biochemistry, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 2280–2289, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. F. P. Guengerich, “Analysis and characterization of enzymes and nucleic acids,” in Principles and Methods of Toxicology, A. W. Hayes, Ed., pp. 1625–1687, Taylor & Francis, Ann Arbor, Mich, USA, 4th edition, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  36. V. M. Dávila-Borja, J. A. Belmont, J. J. Espinosa, R. Moreno-Sánchez, A. Albores, and R. D. Montero, “Induction of CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 in rat liver by histamine: binding and kinetic studies,” Archives of Toxicology, vol. 81, no. 10, pp. 697–709, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. Omura and R. Sato, “The carbon monoxide-binding pigment of liver microsomes,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 239, pp. 2370–2378, 1964. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. D. R. Koop, “Hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol by rabbit ethanol-inducible cytochrome P-450 isozyme 3a,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 399–404, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. W. H. Habig and W. B. Jakoby, “Assays for differentiation of glutathione S-Transferases,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 77, pp. 398–405, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. B. Mannervik and P. Jemth, “Unit 6.4 basic protocol: measurement of glutathione transferases,” in Current Protocols in Toxicology, M. Maines, L. Costa, D. Reed, and S. Sassa, Eds., pp. 6.4.1–6.4.10, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. M. E. Anderson, “Determination of glutathione and glutathione disulfide in biological samples,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 113, pp. 548–555, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. R. Janero and B. Burghardt, “Thiobarbituric acid-reactive malondialdehyde formation during superoxide-dependent, iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation: influence of peroxidation conditions,” Lipids, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 125–131, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. H. Aebi, “Catalase in vitro,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 105, pp. 121–126, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. Beauchamp and I. Fridovich, “Superoxide dismutase: improved assays and an assay applicable to acrylamide gels,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 276–287, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. A. Lawrence and R. F. Burk, “Glutathione peroxidase activity in selenium deficient rat liver,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 952–958, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. I. Carlberg and B. Mannervik, “Glutathione reductase,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 113, pp. 484–490, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. F. Romagna and C. D. Staniforth, “The automated bone marrow micronucleus test,” Mutation Research, vol. 213, no. 1, pp. 91–104, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. Thier, T. Brüning, P. H. Roos et al., “Markers of genetic susceptibility in human environmental hygiene and toxicology: the role of selected CYP, NAT and GST genes,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 206, no. 3, pp. 149–171, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. L. Wang, M. J. Groves, M. D. Hepburn, and D. T. Bowen, “Glutathione S-transferase enzyme expression in hematopoietic cell lines implies a differential protective role for T1 and A1 isoenzymes in erythroid and for M1 in lymphoid lineages,” Haematologica, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 573–579, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. P. J. Sherratt, M. M. Manson, A. M. Thomson et al., “Increased bioactivation of dihaloalkanes in rat liver due to induction of class theta glutathione S-transferase T1-1,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 335, no. 3, pp. 619–630, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. J. Oh, S. K. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Role of glutathione in metabolic degradation of dichloromethane in rats,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 129, no. 1-2, pp. 107–114, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. Pathiratne, R. L. Puyear, and J. D. Brammer, “A comparative study of the effects of benzene, toluene, and xylenes on their in vitro metabolism and drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 272–280, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. E. Olvera-Bello, E. Estrada-Muñiz, G. Elizondo, and L. Vega, “Susceptibility to the cytogenetic effects of dichloromethane is related to the glutathione S-transferase theta phenotype,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 199, no. 3, pp. 218–224, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. I. Cederbaum, Y. Lu, and D. Wu, “Role of oxidative stress in alcohol-induced liver injury,” Archives of Toxicology, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 519–548, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. Pankow, F. Matschiner, and H.-J. Weigmann, “Influence of aromatic hydrocarbons on the metabolism of dichloromethane to carbon monoxide in rats,” Toxicology, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 89–100, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. K. Kim and Y. C. Kim, “Effect of a single administration of benzene, toluene or m-xylene on carboxyhaemoglobin elevation and metabolism of dichloromethane in rats,” Journal of Applied Toxicology, vol. 16, no. 15, pp. 437–444, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  57. E. Testai, V. de Curtis, S. Gemma, L. Fabrizi, P. Gervasi, and L. Vittozzi, “The role of different cytochrome P450 isoforms in in vitro chloroform metabolism,” Journal of Biochemical Toxicology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 305–312, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. L. Fabrizi, G. W. Taylor, B. Cañas, A. R. Boobis, and R. J. Edwards, “Adduction of the chloroform metabolite phosgene to lysine residues of human histone H2B,” Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 266–275, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. E. Mohtashamipur, K. Norpoth, U. Woelke, and P. Huber, “Effects of ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylene on the induction of micronuclei in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of mice,” Archives of Toxicology, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 106–109, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. K. H. Mavournin, D. H. Blakey, M. C. Cimino, M. F. Salamone, and J. A. Heddle, “The in vivo micronucleus assay in mammalian bone marrow and peripheral blood. A report of the US Environmental Protection Agency Gene-Tox Program,” Mutation Research, vol. 239, no. 1, pp. 29–80, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus