BioMed Research International / 2014 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

The Role of Physical Exercise in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Table 3

Characteristics of animal studies examining effects of exercise on experimental colitis.

ReferenceSpeciesStudy characteristicsStudy outcome

Cook et al., 2013 [46] Male C57Bl/6J miceMice were randomly assigned to 3 groups: (1) sedentary, (2) moderate intensity forced treadmill exercise (FTR) (8–12 m/min, 40 min, 6 weeks, and 5x/week), or (3) voluntary wheel training (VWR) (30 days access to wheels). Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was given at 2% (w/v) in drinking water over 5 days. Mice discontinued exercise 24 h prior to DSS treatment.Forced treadmill exercise exacerbated the colitis manifestation and mucosal inflammation (rise in diarrhea and gene expression of IL-6, IL-1 , and IL-17 in the colon. Also higher mortality was observed in the FTR/DSS group. VWR alleviated colitis symptoms and reduced inflammatory gene expression in the colonic mucosa of DSS-treated mice.

Saxena et al., 2012 [48]Male adiponectin knockout (APNKO) and wild type (WT) mice (C57BL/6)APNKO and WT mice were randomly assigned to different groups: (1) sedentary (SED); (2) exercise trained (ET); (3) sedentary with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment (SED + DSS); and (4) exercise trained with DSS (ET + DSS). Exercise-trained mice ran at 18 m/min for 60 min, 5 d/wk for 4 weeks. Subsequently, the ET + DSS and the SED + DSS mice received 2% DSS in their drinking water for 5 days (d), followed by 5 d of regular water.The clinical symptoms of colitis were unaffected by exercise and there was no difference between the APNKO and WT mice. The clinical symptoms of the DSS-treated APNKO mice were worse than WT mice treated with DSS and had increased local STAT3 activation, higher IL-6, TNF- , IL-1 , and IL-10. Exercise training significantly decreased proinflammatory cytokines including IL-6, TNF- , and IL-1 and the phosphorylation expression of STAT3 in both WT and APNKO mice in DSS + EX.

Hoffman-Goetz et al., 2010 [49]Female C57BL/6 miceAnimals were given 16 weeks of wheel running (WR) or a control condition and at the end of training were assigned to a single acute treadmill exercise session (30 min at 22 m/min, 30 min at 25 m/min, and 30 min at 28 m/min).WR mice had lower TNF- and caspase 7 and higher IL-10 and IL-6 expression in intestinal lymphocyte (ILymph) than No WR mice. A single exposure to intense aerobic treadmill exercise increased pro-(TNF- ) and anti-(IL-10) inflammatory cytokine and proapoptotic protein (caspase 3) expression in ILymph. The percent of early and late apoptotic and dead ILymph were higher after acute exercise.

Luo et al., (2013) [52]Male Balb/c miceEffect of moderate exercise (30 min per day swimming) on repeated restraint stress- (RRS-) induced intestinal barrier dysfunction.Exercise attenuated chronic stress-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction in mice, possibly due to augmentation of antimicrobial responses in the small intestine.