Mice were randomly assigned to 3 groups: (1) sedentary, (2) moderate intensity forced treadmill exercise (FTR) (8–12 m/min, 40 min, 6 weeks, and 5x/week), or (3) voluntary wheel training (VWR) (30 days access to wheels). Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was given at 2% (w/v) in drinking water over 5 days. Mice discontinued exercise 24 h prior to DSS treatment.
Forced treadmill exercise exacerbated the colitis manifestation and mucosal inflammation (rise in diarrhea and gene expression of IL-6, IL-1, and IL-17 in the colon. Also higher mortality was observed in the FTR/DSS group. VWR alleviated colitis symptoms and reduced inflammatory gene expression in the colonic mucosa of DSS-treated mice.
Male adiponectin knockout (APNKO) and wild type (WT) mice (C57BL/6)
APNKO and WT mice were randomly assigned to different groups: (1) sedentary (SED); (2) exercise trained (ET); (3) sedentary with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment (SED + DSS); and (4) exercise trained with DSS (ET + DSS). Exercise-trained mice ran at 18 m/min for 60 min, 5 d/wk for 4 weeks. Subsequently, the ET + DSS and the SED + DSS mice received 2% DSS in their drinking water for 5 days (d), followed by 5 d of regular water.
The clinical symptoms of colitis were unaffected by exercise and there was no difference between the APNKO and WT mice. The clinical symptoms of the DSS-treated APNKO mice were worse than WT mice treated with DSS and had increased local STAT3 activation, higher IL-6, TNF-, IL-1, and IL-10. Exercise training significantly decreased proinflammatory cytokines including IL-6, TNF-, and IL-1 and the phosphorylation expression of STAT3 in both WT and APNKO mice in DSS + EX.
Animals were given 16 weeks of wheel running (WR) or a control condition and at the end of training were assigned to a single acute treadmill exercise session (30 min at 22 m/min, 30 min at 25 m/min, and 30 min at 28 m/min).
WR mice had lower TNF- and caspase 7 and higher IL-10 and IL-6 expression in intestinal lymphocyte (ILymph) than No WR mice. A single exposure to intense aerobic treadmill exercise increased pro-(TNF-) and anti-(IL-10) inflammatory cytokine and proapoptotic protein (caspase 3) expression in ILymph. The percent of early and late apoptotic and dead ILymph were higher after acute exercise.