Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 429486, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/429486
Research Article

In Silico Investigation of Potential TRAF6 Inhibitor from Traditional Chinese Medicine against Cancers

1School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
2School of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
3Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
4Department of Neurosurgery, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan
5Research Center for Chinese Medicine & Acupuncture, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
6Human Genetic Center, Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan

Received 21 February 2014; Accepted 5 March 2014; Published 25 June 2014

Academic Editor: Chung Y. Hsu

Copyright © 2014 Kuan-Chung Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

It has been indicated that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6) will upregulate the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and promote tumor angiogenesis. TRAF6 proteins can be treated as drug target proteins for a differentiation therapy against cancers. As structural disordered disposition in the protein may induce the side-effect and reduce the occupancy for ligand to bind with target protein, PONDR-Fit protocol was performed to predict the disordered disposition in TRAF6 protein before virtual screening. TCM compounds from the TCM Database@Taiwan were employed for virtual screening to identify potent compounds as lead compounds of TRAF6 inhibitor. After virtual screening, the MD simulation was performed to validate the stability of interactions between TRAF6 proteins and each ligand. The top TCM compounds, tryptophan, diiodotyrosine, and saussureamine C, extracted from Saussurea lappa Clarke, Bos taurus domesticus Gmelin, and Lycium chinense Mill., have higher binding affinities with target protein in docking simulation. However, the docking pose of TRAF6 protein with tryptophan is not stable under dynamic condition. For the other two TCM candidates, diiodotyrosine and saussureamine C maintain the similar docking poses under dynamic conditions. Hence, we propose the TCM compounds, diiodotyrosine and saussureamine C, as potential candidates as lead compounds for further study in drug development process with the TRAF6 protein against cancer.