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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 452315, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/452315
Review Article

Metabolism of Cartilage Proteoglycans in Health and Disease

Biochemistry, Biochemical Analysis and Matrix Pathobiology Research Group, Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, 26500 Patras, Greece

Received 30 April 2014; Accepted 16 June 2014; Published 3 July 2014

Academic Editor: George Tzanakakis

Copyright © 2014 Demitrios H. Vynios. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cartilage proteoglycans are extracellular macromolecules with complex structure, composed of a core protein onto which a variable number of glycosaminoglycan chains are attached. Their biosynthesis at the glycosaminoglycan level involves a great number of sugar transferases well-orchestrated in Golgi apparatus. Similarly, their degradation, either extracellular or intracellular in lysosomes, involves a large number of hydrolases. A deficiency or malfunction of any of the enzymes participating in cartilage proteoglycan metabolism may lead to severe disease state. This review summarizes the findings regarding this topic.