Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 459465, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/459465
Review Article

Biomaterials in Cardiovascular Research: Applications and Clinical Implications

1IJN-UTM Cardiovascular Engineering Centre, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Malaysia
2Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302, India
3Department of Research and Development, PSNA College of Engineering and Technology, Kothandaraman Nagar, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu 624 622, India

Received 21 January 2014; Revised 29 March 2014; Accepted 31 March 2014; Published 8 May 2014

Academic Editor: Minetaro Ogawa

Copyright © 2014 Saravana Kumar Jaganathan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. F. Williams, Definitions in Biomaterials, Proceedings of a Consensus Conference of the European Society for Biomaterials, Chester, UK, 1986.
  2. D. F. Williams, The Williams Dictionary of Biomaterials, Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, UK, 1999.
  3. D. F. Williams, “On the nature of biomaterials,” Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 30, pp. 5897–5909, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. “Markets and Markets,” http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/PressReleases/global-biomaterials.asp.
  5. “A Roadmap of Biomedical Engineers and Milestones,” http://users.ox.ac.uk/~exet0249/biomaterials.html#biomat.
  6. M. Niinomi, “Recent metallic materials for biomedical applications,” “Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 477–486, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  7. “Tiger International (Shanghai) BioMetals Co., Ltd,” http://www.biomedicalalloys.com/home.html.
  8. C. M. Agrawal, “Reconstructing the human body using biomaterials,” The Journal of Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 31–35, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. N. Helmus and J. A. Hubbell, “Materials selection,” in Cardiovascular Pathology, vol. 2, no. 3, chapter 6, pp. 53S–71S, Elsevier Science Publication, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  10. W. S. Roger and N. H. Michael, Cardiovascular Biomaterials Digital Engineering Library Press, 2004.
  11. M. W. Curtis and B. Russell, “Cardiac tissue engineering,” Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 87–92, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. “Biological evaluation of medical devices—Part 1: Evaluation and testing within a risk managementprocess,” http://www.fda.gov/downloads/MedicalDevices/DeviceRegulationandGuidance/GuidanceDocuments/UCM348890.pdf.
  13. “Biological evaluation of medical devices—Part 12: Sample preparation and reference materials,” ISO 10993-12:2012.
  14. Y. Weng, J. Chen, Q. Tu, Q. Li, M. F. Maitz, and N. Huang, “Biomimetic modification of metallic cardiovascular biomaterials: from function mimicking to endothelialization in vivo,” Interface Focus, no. 2, pp. 356–365, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  15. M. B. Gorbet and M. V. Sefton, “Biomaterial-associated thrombosis: roles of coagulation factors, complement, platelets and leukocytes,” Biomaterials, vol. 25, no. 26, pp. 5681–5703, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. Pallister and M. Watson, Haematology, Scion Publishing, 2010.
  17. R. C. Eberhart, H. Huo, and K. Nelson, Cardiovascular Materials, MRS Bulletin, 17th edition, 1991.
  18. R. E. . Marchant and I. Wang, “Physical and chemical aspects of biomaterials used in humans,” in Implantation Biology: The Host Response and Biomedical Devices, pp. 13–38, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  19. W. A. Lane, “Some remarks on the treatment of fractures,” British Medical Journal, no. 1, p. 861, 1895. View at Google Scholar
  20. Metals for Biomedical Applications, http://www.intechopen.com/download/get/type/pdfs/id/18658.
  21. M. Moravej and D. Mantovani, “Biodegradable metals for cardiovascular stent application: interests and new opportunities,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 4250–4270, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. BomBac, M. Brojan, P. FajFar, F. Kosel, and R. Turk, “Review of materials in medical applications,” RMZ-Materials and Geoenvironment, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 471–499, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  23. E. A. Brandes and G.B. Brook, Smithells Metals Reference Book, Oxford, UK, 7th edition.
  24. H. J. Rack and J. I. Qazi, “Titanium alloys for biomedical applications,” Materials Science and Engineering C, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1269–1277, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. “Self-Expanding Nitinol Stents—Material and Design Considerations,” http://www.nitinol.com/media/reference-library/005.pdf.
  26. R. Waksman, “Biodegradable stents: they do their job and disappear,” Journal of Invasive Cardiology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 70–74, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Abizaid and J. R. Costa Jr., “New drug-eluting stents an overview on biodegradable and polymer-free next-generation stent systems,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 384–393, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/BI108/BI108_2004_Groups/Group05/Drug%20 Eluting%20Stents/drug_eluting_stents.htm.
  29. http://www.everydayhealth.com/health-center/blood-clots-a-late-hazard-for-drug-coated-stents.aspx.
  30. S. Saito, “New horizon of bioabsorbable stent,” Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 595–596, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. P. Erne, M. Schier, and T. J. Resink, “The road to bioabsorbable stents: reaching clinical reality?” CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 11–16, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Peuster, P. Wohlsein, M. Brügmann et al., “A novel approach to temporary stenting: degradable cardiovascular stents produced from corrodible metal—results 6–18 months after implantation into New Zealand white rabbits,” Heart, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 563–569, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Colombo and E. Karvouni, “Biodegradable stents: fulfilling the mission and stepping away,” Circulation, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 371–373, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. Heublein, R. Rohde, V. Kaese, M. Niemeyer, W. Hartung, and A. Haverich, “Biocorrosion of magnesium alloys: a new principle in cardiovascular implant technology?” Heart, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 651–656, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. N. Helmus and J. A. Hubbell, “Chapter 6 Materials selection,” Cardiovascular Pathology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 53–71, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. B. Lee, S. S. Kim, and G. Khang, “Polymeric biomaterials,” The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, pp. 581–597, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  37. http://www.buhlergroup.com/northamerica/en/industry-solutions/advanced-materials/other-polymers/polyamide-ssp.htm#.U0Pz3KiSw7l.
  38. http://biomerics.com/Polyolefin.
  39. F. A. Kudo, T. Nishibe, K. Miyazaki, J. Flores, and K. Yasuda, “Albumin-coated knitted Dacron aortic prostheses. Study of prosperative inflammatory reactions,” International Angiology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 214–217, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. V. Shayani, K. D. Newman, and D. A. Dichek, “Optimization of recombinant t-PA secretion from seeded vascular grafts,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 495–504, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. W. J. van der Giessen, A. M. Lincoff, R. S. Schwartz et al., “Marked inflammatory sequelae to implantation of biodegradable and nonbiodegradable polymers in porcine coronary arteries,” Circulation, vol. 94, no. 7, pp. 1690–1697, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. A. Ormiston, P. W. Serruys, E. Regar et al., “A bioabsorbable everolimus-eluting coronary stent system for patients with single de-novo coronary artery lesions (ABSORB): a prospective open-label trial,” The Lancet, vol. 371, no. 9616, pp. 899–907, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. W. Serruys, “Absorb trial first-in-man evaluation of a bioabsorbable everolimus-eluting coronary stent system: two-year outcomes and results from multiple imaging modalities,” The Lancet, vol. 373, pp. 897–910, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  44. S. P. Saha, S. Muluk, W. Schenk III et al., “Use of fibrin sealant as a hemostatic agent in expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft placement surgery,” Annals of Vascular Surgery, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 813–822, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Wang, A. S. Gupta, S. Sagnella, P. M. Barendt, K. Kottke-Marchant, and R. E. Marchant, “Biomimetic fluorocarbon surfactant polymers reduce platelet adhesion on PTFE/ePTFE surfaces,” Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition, vol. 20, no. 5-6, pp. 619–635, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. B. Yashiro, M. Shoda, Y. Tomizawa, T. Manaka, and N. Hagiwara, “Long-term results of a cardiovascular implantable electronic device wrapped with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene sheet,” Journal of Artificial Organs, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 244–249, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. L. Barozzi, C. P. Brizard, J. C. Galati, I. E. Konstantinov, L. Bohuta, and Y. D'udekem, “Side-to-side aorto-goretex central shunt warrants central shunt patency and pulmonary arteries growth,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 1476–1482, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. Y. H. Kuan, L. P. Dasi, A. Yoganathan, and H. L. Leo, “Recent advances in polymeric heart valves research,” International Journal of Biomaterials Research and Engineering, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  49. G. N. Arjun and P. Ramesh, “Structural characterization, mechanical properties, and in vitro cytocompatibility evaluation of fibrous polycarbonate urethane membranes for biomedical application,” Journal of Biomed Materials Research A, vol. 100, no. 11, pp. 3042–3050, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  50. K. E. Styan, D. J. Martin, A. Simmons, and L. A. Poole-Warren, “In vivo biostability of polyurethane-organosilicate nanocomposites,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 2243–2253, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. Carpentier, “From valvularxenograft to valvularbioprosthesis,” Medical Instrumentation, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 98–101, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  52. G. Melina, F. de Robertis, J. A. R. Gaer, M. Amrani, A. Khaghani, and M. H. Yacoub, “Mid-term pattern of survival, hemodynamic performance and rate of complications after medtronic freestyle versus homograft full aortic root replacement: results from a prospective randomized trial,” The Journal of Heart Valve Disease, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 972–976, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. L. Gonzalez-Lavin and D. Ross, “Homograft aortic valve replacement,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1970. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. K. Liao, E. Seifter, D. Hoffman, E. L. Yellin, and R. W. M. Frater, “Bovine pericardium versus porcine aortic valve: comparison of tissue biological properties as prosthetic valves,” Artificial Organs, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 361–365, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. B. Chambers, R. Rajani, D. Parkin et al., “Bovine pericardial versus porcine stented replacement aortic valves: early results of a randomized comparison of the Perimount and the Mosaic valves,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 136, no. 5, pp. 1142–1148, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. C. Guidoin, R. W. Snyder, J. A. Awad, and M. W. King, “Biostability of vascular prostheses,” in Cardiovascular Biomaterials, pp. 143–172, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  57. H. P. Greisler, New Biologic and Synthetic Vascular Prostheses, R G Landes Company Inc, Austin, Tex, USA, 1991.
  58. S. Murugesan, J. Xie, and R. J. Linhardt, “Immobilization of heparin: approaches and applications,” Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 80–100, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. A. Khorana, A. Sahni, O. D. Altland, and C. W. Francis, “Heparin iof endothelial cell proliferation and organization is dependent on molecular weight,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 2110–2115, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. A. Beamish, L. C. Geyer, N. A. Haq-Siddiqi, K. Kottke-Marchant, R. E. Marchant, and Marchant, “The effects of heparin releasing hydrogels on vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype,” Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 31, pp. 6286–6294, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  61. D. Matthew, S. A. Berceli, M. J. Bide, W. G. Quist, and F. W. LoGerfo, “Diminished adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils with CD47 functionalized blood contacting surfaces,” Biomaterials, vol. 18, p. 755, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  62. L. Lei, Q.-L. Li, M. F. Maitz, J.-L. Chen, and N. Huang, “Immobilization of the direct thrombin inhibitor-bivalirudin on 316L stainless steel via polydopamine and the resulting effects on hemocompatibility in vitro,” Journal of Biomedical Material Research A, vol. 100A, no. 9, pp. 2421–2430, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. K. P. Walluscheck, G. Steinhoff, S. Kelm, and A. Haverich, “Improved endothelial cell attachment on ePTFE vascular grafts pretreated with synthetic RGD-containing peptides,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 321–330, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. K. E. Kador, T. G. Mamedov, M. Schneider, and A. Subramanian, “Sequential co-immobilization of thrombomodulin and endothelial protein C receptor on polyurethane: activation of protein C,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 2508–2517, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. de Mel, F. Murad, and A. M. Seifalian, “Nitric oxide: a guardian for vascular grafts?” Chemical Reviews, vol. 111, no. 9, pp. 5742–5767, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. P. H. Nilsson, A. E. Engberg, J. Bäck et al., “The creation of an antithrombotic surface by apyrase immobilization,” Biomaterials, vol. 31, no. 16, pp. 4484–4491, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. J. Finley, L. Rauova, I. S. Alferiev, J. W. Weisel, R. J. Levy, and S. J. Stachelek, “Diminished adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils with CD47 functionalized blood contacting surfaces,” Biomaterials, vol. 33, no. 24, pp. 5803–5811, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  68. N. M. Luan, Y. Teramura, and H. Iwata, “Layer-by-layer co-immobilization of soluble complement receptor 1 and heparin on islets,” Biomaterials, vol. 32, no. 27, pp. 6487–6492, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. R. Hauert, “A review of modified DLC coatings for biological applications,” Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 12, no. 3–7, pp. 583–589, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. N. Huang, P. Yang, Y. X. Leng et al., “Hemocompatibility of titanium oxide films,” Biomaterials, vol. 24, no. 13, pp. 2177–2187, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. M. Fedel, A. Motta, D. Maniglio, and C. Migliaresi, “Surface properties and blood compatibility of commercially available diamond-like carbon coatings for cardiovascular devices,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research B Applied Biomaterials, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 338–349, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. D. Andrade, S. Nagaoka, S. Cooper, T. Okano, and S. W. Kim, “Surfaces and blood compatibility,” ASAIO Transactions, vol. 10, pp. 75–84, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. K. M. Hansson, S. Tosatti, J. Isaksson et al., “Whole blood coagulation on protein adsorption-resistant PEG and peptide functionalised PEG-coated titanium surfaces,” Biomaterials, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 861–872, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. S. Kihara, K. Yamazaki, K. N. Litwak et al., “In vivo evaluation of a MPC polymer coated continuous flow left ventricular assist system,” Artificial Organs, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 188–192, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. Y. Kawamoto, A. Nakao, Y. Ito, N. Wada, and M. Kaibara, “Endothelial cells on plasma-treated segmented-polyurethane. Adhesion strength, antithrombogenicity and cultivation in tubes,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 551–557, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. Y. J. Kim, I.-K. Kang, M. W. Huh, and S.-C. Yoon, “Surface characterization and in vitro blood compatibility of poly(ethylene terephthalate) immobilized with insulin and/or heparin using plasma glow discharge,” Biomaterials, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 121–130, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. B. Gupta, C. Plummer, I. Bisson, P. Frey, and J. Hilborn, “Plasma-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) films: characterization and human smooth muscle cell growth on grafted films,” Biomaterials, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 863–871, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. J. Heitz, T. Gumpenberger, H. Kahr, and C. Romanin, “Adhesion and proliferation of human vascular cells on UV-light-modified polymers,” Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 59–69, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. T. Khorasani, H. Mirzadeh, and P. G. Sammes, “Laser induced surface modification of polydimethylsiloxane as a super-hydrophobic material,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 881–888, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. H. Mohandas, G. Sivakumar, K. Palaniappan, S. K. Jaganathan, and E. Supriyanto, “Microwave-assisted surface modification of metallocene polyethylene for improving blood compatibility,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 253473, 7 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. “Ion beam process polymer,” in American Symposium on Strategies to Improve Biocompatibility of Blood Interacting Biomaterials, Boston, Mass, USA, 1995.
  82. Y. Suzuki, H. Iwata, A. Nakao et al., “Ion implantation into collagen for the substrate of small diameter artificial grafts,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, vol. 127-128, pp. 1019–1022, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. F. Otsuka, A. V. Finn, S. K. Yazdani, M. Nakano, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “The importance of the endothelium in atherothrombosis and coronary stenting,” Nature Reviews Cardiology, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 439–453, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  84. T. Asahara, T. Murohara, A. Sullivan et al., “Isolation of putative progenitor endothelial cells for angiogenesis,” Science, vol. 275, no. 5302, pp. 964–967, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. J. Hur, C.-H. Yoon, H.-S. Kim et al., “Characterization of two types of endothelial progenitor cells and their different contributions to neovasculogenesis,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 288–293, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. M. Adali, G. Ziemer, and H. P. Wendel, “Induction of EPC homing on biofunctionalized vascular grafts for rapid in vivo self-endothelialization—a review of current strategies,” Biotechnology Advances, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 119–129, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  87. A. J. Melchiorr, N. Hibino, and J. P. Fisher, “Strategies and techniques to enhance the in situ endothelialization of small-diameter biodegradable polymeric vascular grafts,” Tissue Engineering B Reviews, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 292–307, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  88. W. Zeng, W. Yuan, L. Li et al., “The promotion of endothelial progenitor cells recruitment by nerve growth factors in tissue-engineered blood vessels,” Biomaterials, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1636–1645, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. J. Yu, A. Wang, Z. Tang et al., “The effect of stromal cell-derived factor-1α/heparin coating of biodegradable vascular grafts on the recruitment of both endothelial and smooth muscle progenitor cells for accelerated regeneration,” Biomaterials, vol. 33, pp. 8062–8074, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  90. M. Klomp, M. A. M. Beijk, and R. J. de Winter, “Genous endothelial progenitor cell-capturing stent system: a novel stent technology,” Expert Review of Medical Devices, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 365–375, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. M. Co, E. Tay, C. H. Lee et al., “Use of endothelial progenitor cell capture stent (Genous Bio-Engineered R Stent) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction: intermediate- to long-term clinical follow-up,” American Heart Journal, vol. 155, no. 1, pp. 128–132, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. S. Silber, P. Damman, M. Klomp et al., “Clinical results after coronary stenting with the Genous bio-engineered R stent: 12-Month outcomes of the e-HEALING (Healthy Endothelial Accelerated Lining Inhibits Neointimal Growth) worldwide registry,” EuroIntervention, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 819–825, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. R. Sethi and C. H. Lee, “Endothelial progenitor cell capture stent: safety and effectiveness,” Journal of Interventional Cardiology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 493–500, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  94. P. Damman, A. Iñiguez, M. Klomp et al., “Coronary stenting with the Genous Bio-Engineered R Stent in elderly patients,” Circulation Journal, vol. 75, no. 11, pp. 2590–2597, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  95. J. Hoffmann, A. Paul, M. Harwardt et al., “Immobilized DNA aptamers used as potent attractors for porcine endothelial precursor cells,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research A, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 614–621, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. D. S. Sim, J. S. Kwon, Y. S. Kim et al., “Effectiveness of drug-eluting stents versus bare-metal stents in large coronary arteries in patients with acute myocardial infarction,” Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 521–527, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  97. Q. H. Meng, Y. M. Song, J. Zhao, C. J. Yu, and Q. M. Zhan, “Optimization of transfection efficiency of small interfering RNA in purified human prolactinoma cells,” Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities, vol. 124, no. 12, pp. 1862–1869, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  98. L. Ye, S. Zhang, L. Greder et al., “Effective cardiac myocyte differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells requires VEGF,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 1, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  99. A. Moretti, M. Bellin, A. Welling et al., “Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem-cell models for long-QT syndrome,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 15, pp. 1397–1409, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. I. Itzhaki, L. Maizels, I. Huber et al., “Modeling of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia with patient-specific human-induced pluripotent stem cells,” American College of Cardiology, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 990–1000, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  101. N. L. Tulloch, V. Muskheli, M. V. Razumova et al., “Growth of engineered human myocardium with mechanical loading and vascular coculture,” Circulation Research, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 47–59, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. D. Taura, M. Sone, K. Homma et al., “Induction and isolation of vascular cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells—brief report,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1100–1103, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. Z. Li, S. Hu, Z. Ghosh, Z. Han, and J. C. Wu, “Functional characterization and expression profiling of human induced pluripotent stem cell- and embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1701–1710, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. W. J. Adams, Y. Zhang, J. Cloutier et al., “Functional vascular endothelium derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells,” Stem Cell Reports, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 105–113, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  105. K. S. Tan, K. Tamura, M. I. Lai et al., “Molecular pathways governing development of vascular endothelial cells from ES/iPS cells,” Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 586–598, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  106. T. Yamamoto, R. Shibata, M. Ishii et al., “Therapeutic re endothelialization by induced pluripotent stem cells after vascular injury-brief report,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 2218–2221, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar