Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 469278, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/469278
Research Article

Genetic Variants in the Genes of the Stress Hormone Signalling Pathway and Depressive Symptoms during and after Pregnancy

1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
2Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany
3Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Aachen, RWTH Aachen, Germany
4Department of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
5Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany

Received 8 January 2014; Revised 7 February 2014; Accepted 8 February 2014; Published 12 March 2014

Academic Editor: Gottfried E. Konecny

Copyright © 2014 Michael Schneider et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Gawlik, C. Reck, S. Kuelkens et al., “Prenatal depression and anxiety what is important for the obstetrician?” Geburtsh Frauenheilk, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 361–368, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. B. N. Gaynes, N. Gavin, S. Meltzer-Brody et al., “Perinatal depression: prevalence, screening accuracy, and screening outcomes,” Evidence Report/Technology Assessment (Summary), no. 119, pp. 1–8, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Perfetti, R. Clark, and C.-M. Fillmore, “Postpartum depression: identification, screening, and treatment,” Wisconsin Medical Journal, vol. 103, no. 6, pp. 56–63, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. U. Reulbach, S. Bleich, J. Knörr et al., “Pre-, peri- and postpartal depression first cognition from FRAMES (Franconian Maternal Health Evaluation Studies),” Fortschritte der Neurologie Psychiatrie, vol. 77, no. 12, pp. 708–713, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Voigt, R. L. Schild, M. Mewitz et al., “Maternal weight gain during pregnancy and somatic classification of neonates according to birth weight and duration of pregnancy taking account of maternal body weight and height,” Geburtsh Frauenheilk, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 318–323, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  6. N. I. Gavin, B. N. Gaynes, K. N. Lohr, S. Meltzer-Brody, G. Gartlehner, and T. Swinson, “Perinatal depression: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 106, no. 5, pp. 1071–1083, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Alder, N. Fink, J. Bitzer, I. Hösli, and W. Holzgreve, “Depression and anxiety during pregnancy: a risk factor for obstetric, fetal and neonatal outcome? A critical review of the literature,” Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 189–209, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Bansil, E. V. Kuklina, S. F. Meikle et al., “Maternal and fetal outcomes among women with depression,” Journal of Women's Health, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 329–334, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. A. Lancaster, H. A. Flynn, T. R. B. Johnson, S. M. Marcus, and M. M. Davis, “Peripartum length of stay for women with depressive symptoms during pregnancy,” Journal of Women's Health, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 31–37, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Agnafors, G. Sydsjö, L. deKeyser, and C. G. Svedin, “Symptoms of depression postpartum and 12 years later-associations to child mental health at 12 years of age,” Maternal and Child Health Journal, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 405–414, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. Deave, J. Heron, J. Evans, and A. Emond, “The impact of maternal depression in pregnancy on early child development,” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 115, no. 8, pp. 1043–1051, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. H. Goodman, M. H. Rouse, A. M. Connell, M. R. Broth, C. M. Hall, and D. Heyward, “Maternal depression and child psychopathology: a meta-analytic review,” Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1–27, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. Besier, M. Pillhofer, S. Botzenhart et al., “Child abuse and neglect: screening for risks during the perinatal period,” Geburtsh Frauenheilk, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 397–402, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  14. B. Yazdi, H. Abele, E. M. Grischke et al., “Obstetrics. Prenatal care in reconstruction: from head to toe?” Geburtsh Frauenheilk, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 295–298, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  15. K. S. Kendler, M. C. Neale, R. C. Kessler, A. C. Heath, and L. J. Eaves, “The lifetime history of major depression in women: reliability of diagnosis and heritability,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 863–870, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. McGuffin, R. Katz, S. Watkins, and J. Rutherford, “A hospital-based twin register of the heritability of DSM-IV unipolar depression,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 129–136, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. A. Kohli, S. Lucae, P. G. Saemann et al., “The neuronal transporter gene slc6a15 confers risk to major depression,” Neuron, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 252–265, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. A. Lewis, S. K. Shahi, E. Laing et al., “Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of the response to nitrogen limitation in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2),” BMC Research Notes, vol. 4, article 78, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. Muglia, F. Tozzi, N. W. Galwey et al., “Genome-wide association study of recurrent major depressive disorder in two European case-control cohorts,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 589–601, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Rietschel, M. Mattheisen, J. Frank et al., “Genome-wide association-, replication-, and neuroimaging study implicates homer1 in the etiology of major depression,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 578–585, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Shi, J. B. Potash, J. A. Knowles et al., “Genome-wide association study of recurrent early-onset major depressive disorder,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 193–201, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. I. Shyn, J. Shi, J. B. Kraft et al., “Novel loci for major depression identified by genome-wide association study of sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression and meta-analysis of three studies,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 202–215, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. F. Sullivan, E. J. C. De Geus, G. Willemsen et al., “Genome-wide association for major depressive disorder: a possible role for the presynaptic protein piccolo,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 359–375, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. N. R. Wray, M. L. Pergadia, D. H. R. Blackwood et al., “Genome-wide association study of major depressive disorder: new results, meta-analysis, and lessons learned,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 36–48, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. Forty, L. Jones, S. Macgregor et al., “Familiality of postpartum depression in unipolar disorder: results of a family study,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 163, no. 9, pp. 1549–1553, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. Murphy-Eberenz, P. P. Zandi, D. March et al., “Is perinatal depression familial?” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 49–55, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. L. Payne, D. F. Mackinnon, F. M. Mondimore et al., “Familial aggregation of postpartum mood symptoms in bipolar disorder pedigrees,” Bipolar Disorders, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 38–44, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. B. Binder and C. B. Nemeroff, “The CRF system, stress, depression and anxietyinsights from human genetic studies,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 574–588, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Menke, T. Klengel, J. Rubel et al., “Genetic variation in FKBP5 associated with the extent of stress hormone dysregulation in major depression,” Genes, Brain and Behavior, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 289–296, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  30. E. R. De Kloet, M. Joëls, and F. Holsboer, “Stress and the brain: from adaptation to disease,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 463–475, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. B. Binder, “The role of FKBP5, a co-chaperone of the glucocorticoid receptor in the pathogenesis and therapy of affective and anxiety disorders,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. S186–S195, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. W. Schwab, C. Marth, and A. M. Bergant, “Post-traumatic stress disorder post partum: the impact of birth on the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in multiparous women,” Geburtsh Frauenheilk, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 56–63, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. A. Lancaster, K. J. Gold, H. A. Flynn, H. Yoo, S. M. Marcus, and M. M. Davis, “Risk factors for depressive symptoms during pregnancy: a systematic review,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 202, no. 1, pp. 5–14, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. E. P. Davis, F. Waffarn, and C. A. Sandman, “Prenatal treatment with glucocorticoids sensitizes the hpa axis response to stress among full-term infants,” Developmental Psychobiology, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 175–183, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. P. Davis, C. A. Sandman, C. Buss et al., “Fetal glucocorticoid exposure is associated with preadolescent brain development,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 74, no. 9, pp. 647–655, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  36. S. C. Heinrichs, J. Lapsansky, T. W. Lovenberg, E. B. De Souza, and D. T. Chalmers, “Corticotropin-releasing factor CRF1, but not CRF2, receptors mediate anxiogenic-like behavior,” Regulatory Peptides, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 15–21, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. Arborelius, M. J. Owens, P. M. Plotsky, and C. B. Nemeroff, “The role of corticotropin-releasing factor in depression and anxiety disorders,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 160, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. M. H. M. Reul and F. Holsboer, “On the role of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors in anxiety and depression,” Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 31–46, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. C. B. Nemeroff, “The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) hypothesis of depression: new findings and new directions,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 336–342, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. G. Bradley, E. B. Binder, M. P. Epstein et al., “Influence of child abuse on adult depression: moderation by the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 190–200, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. F. Holsboer, “The corticosteroid receptor hypothesis of depression,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 477–501, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. Russcher, E. F. C. Van Rossum, F. H. De Jong, A. O. Brinkmann, S. W. J. Lamberts, and J. W. Koper, “Increased expression of the glucocorticoid receptor-A translational isoform as a result of the ER22/23EK polymorphism,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1687–1696, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. N. A. T. M. Huizenga, J. W. Koper, P. De Lange et al., “A polymorphism in the glucocorticoid receptor gene may be associated with an increased sensitivity to glucocorticoids in vivo,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 144–151, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. E. R. Sanchez, “Hsp56: a novel heat shock protein associated with untransformed steroid receptor complexes,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 265, no. 36, pp. 22067–22070, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. T. Jääskeläinen, H. Makkonen, and J. J. Palvimo, “Steroid up-regulation of FKBP51 and its role in hormone signaling,” Current Opinion in Pharmacology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 326–331, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. S. Zannas and E. B. Binder, “Gene-environment interactions at the FKBP5 locus: sensitive periods, mechanisms and pleiotropism,” Genes, Brain and Behavior, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 25–37, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. P. A. Fasching, F. Faschingbauer, T. W. Goecke et al., “Genetic variants in the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene (TPH2) and depression during and after pregnancy,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1109–1117, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  48. A. Hein, C. Rauh, A. Engel et al., “Socioeconomic status and depression during and after pregnancy in the Franconian Maternal Health Evaluation Studies (FRAMES),” Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. C. Rauh, A. Beetz, P. Burger et al., “Delivery mode and the course of pre- and postpartum depression,” Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 286, no. 6, pp. 1407–1412, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  50. D. Mehta, C. Quast, P. A. Fasching et al., “The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism modulates the influence on environmental stressors on peripartum depression symptoms,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 136, no. 3, pp. 1192–1197, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. M. Bergant, T. Nguyen, K. Heim, H. Ulmer, and O. Dapunt, “German version and validation of the Edinburgh depression scale (EPDS),” Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 35–40, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. M. Mitchell, M. E. Mittelstaedt, and D. Schott-Baer, “Postpartum depression: the reliability of telephone screening,” MCN The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 382–387, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. D. J. Schaid, C. M. Rowland, D. E. Tines, R. M. Jacobson, and G. A. Poland, “Score tests for association between traits and haplotypes when linkage phase is ambiguous,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 425–434, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. Minelli, E. Maffioletti, C. R. Cloninger et al., “Role of allelic variants of FK506-binding protein 51 (fkbp5) gene in the development of anxiety disorders,” Depression and Anxiety, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1170–1176, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  55. F. P. Velders, G. Dieleman, R. A. Cents et al., “Variation in the glucocorticoid receptor gene at rs41423247 moderates the effect of prenatal maternal psychological symptoms on child cortisol reactivity and behavior,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 2541–2549, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  56. Z. Liu, F. Zhu, G. Wang et al., “Association of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor1 gene SNP and haplotype with major depression,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 404, no. 3, pp. 358–362, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. O. Valkenburg, A. G. Uitterlinden, A. P. Themmen et al., “Genetic polymorphisms of the glucocorticoid receptor may affect the phenotype of women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome,” Human Reproduction, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 2902–2911, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. C. W. Hanna, K. L. Bretherick, C.-C. Liu, M. D. Stephenson, and W. P. Robinson, “Genetic variation within the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis in women with recurrent miscarriage,” Human Reproduction, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 2664–2671, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Poulain, N. Frydman, C. Duquenne et al., “Dexamethasone induces germ cell apoptosis in the human fetal ovary,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 97, no. 10, pp. E1890–E1897, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  60. M.-A. Magiakou, G. Mastorakos, D. Rabin et al., “The maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the third trimester of human pregnancy,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 419–428, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. R. S. Goland, S. Jozak, and I. Conwell, “Placental corticotropin-releasing hormone and the hypercortisolism of pregnancy,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 171, no. 5, pp. 1287–1291, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. E. A. Linton, A. V. Perkins, R. J. Woods et al., “Corticotropin releasing hormone-binding protein (CRH-BP): plasma levels decrease during the third trimester of normal human pregnancy,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 260–262, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. A. Oppo, M. Mauri, D. Ramacciotti et al., “Risk factors for postpartum depression: the role of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R) : Rlts from the Perinatal Depression-Research Sc&reening Unit (PNDReScU) study,” Archives of Women's Mental Health, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 239–249, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M.-A. Magiakou, G. Mastorakos, D. Rabin, B. Dubbert, P. W. Gold, and G. P. Chrousos, “Hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone suppression during the postpartum period: implications for the increase in psychiatric manifestations at this time,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 1912–1917, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. D. K. Y. Sit and K. L. Wisner, “Identification of postpartum depression,” Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 456–468, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. P. Navarro, C. Ascaso, L. Garcia-Esteve, J. Aguado, A. Torres, and R. Martín-Santos, “Postnatal psychiatric morbidity: a validation study of the GHQ-12 and the EPDS as screening tools,” General Hospital Psychiatry, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. L. Murray and A. D. Carothers, “The validation of the Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale on a community sample,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 157, pp. 288–290, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. B. Harris, P. Huckle, R. Thomas, S. Johns, and H. Fung, “The use of rating scales to identify post-natal depression,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 154, pp. 813–817, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. Eberhard-Gran, A. Eskild, K. Tambs, S. Opjordsmoen, and S. O. Samuelsen, “Review of validation studies of the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 104, no. 4, pp. 243–249, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus