Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 471565, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/471565
Research Article

Toxicity Profile of a Nutraceutical Formulation Derived from Green Mussel Perna viridis

Marine Biotechnology Division, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Ernakulam North P.O., PB No. 1603, Cochin, Kerala 682018, India

Received 26 February 2014; Accepted 12 May 2014; Published 9 June 2014

Academic Editor: Sanyog Jain

Copyright © 2014 Kajal Chakraborty et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Li and A. J. Sinclair, “Macronutrient innovations: the role of fats and sterols in human health,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. S155–S162, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. J. Benson, D. C. Marelli, M. E. Frischer, J. M. Danforth, and J. D. Williams, “Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida,” Journal of Shellfish Research, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 21–29, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. Laxmilatha, G. S. Rao, P. Patnaik, T. N. Rao, M. P. Rao, and B. Dash, “Potential for the hatchery production of spat of the green mussel Perna viridis Linnaeus (1758),” Aquaculture, vol. 312, no. 1–4, pp. 88–94, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. Chellaram, P. T. Anand, S. Kumaran et al., “Central nervous system depressant properties of reef associated gastropods, Drupa margariticola and Trochus tentorium from Gulf of Mannar, Southeastern India,” Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 154–159, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  5. K. Chakraborty, S. J. Chakkalakal, and D. Joseph, “Response of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin contents in anti-inflammatory supplements from Green Mussel Perna viridisL. in a time dependent accelerated shelf-life study,” Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 7, pp. 527–540, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  6. M. W. Whitehouse, T. A. Macrides, N. Kalafatis, W. H. Betts, D. R. Haynes, and J. Broadbent, “Anti-inflammatory activity of a lipid fraction (Lyprinol) from the NZ green-lipped mussel,” Inflammopharmacology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 237–246, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. McPhee, L. D. Hodges, P. F. A. Wright et al., “Anti-cyclooxygenase effects of lipid extracts from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 146, no. 3, pp. 346–356, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. Uemura, T. Chou, T. Haino et al., “Pinnatoxin A: a toxic amphoteric macrocycle from the Okinawan bivalve (Pinna muricata),” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 1155–1156, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. J. Murphy, B. D. Mooney, N. J. Mann, P. D. Nichols, and A. J. Sinclair, “Lipid, FA, and sterol composition of New Zealand green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) and Tasmanian blue mussel (Mytilus edulis),” Lipids, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 587–595, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. B. E. Spencer, Molluscan Shellfish Farming, vol. 274, Blackwell Science, Malden, Mass, USA, 1st edition, 2002.
  11. L.-D. Quan, G. M. Thiele, J. Tian, and D. Wang, “The development of novel therapies for rheumatoid arthritis,” Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 723–738, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. J. Schnitzer, M. Kamin, and W. H. Olson, “Tramadol allows reduction of naproxen dose among patients with naproxen-responsive osteoarthritis pain,” Arthritis and Rheumatology, vol. 42, pp. 1370–1377, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  13. L. N. Larsen, E. Dahl, and J. Bremer, “Peroxidative oxidation of leuco-dichlorofluorescein by prostaglandin H synthase in prostaglandin biosynthesis from polyunsaturated fatty acids,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Lipids and Lipid Metabolism, vol. 1299, no. 1, pp. 47–53, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Baylac and P. Racine, “Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase by essential oils and other natural fragment extracts,” International Journal of Aromatherapy, vol. 13, no. 2-3, pp. 138–142, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. A. Winter, E. A. Risley, and G. W. Nuss, “Carrageenin-induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for antiiflammatory drugs,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 111, pp. 544–547, 1962. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. I. Ezeja, A. O. Anaga, I. U. Asuzu et al., “Acute and sub-chronic toxicity profile of methanol leaf extract of Gouania longipetala in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 151, pp. 1155–1164, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  17. N. Chiranthanut, S. Teekachunhatean, A. Panthong, P. Khonsung, D. Kanjanapothi, and N. Lertprasertsuk, “Toxicity evaluation of standardized extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 149, no. 1, pp. 228–234, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. A. Nelson and M. W. Morrie, “Basic Methodology,” in Clinical Diagnosis and Management By Laboratory Methods, J. B. Henry, Ed., p. 589, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  19. G. K. Pal and P. Parvati, Textbook of Practical Physiology, Orient Longman Private Limited, 2003.
  20. H. U. Bergmeyer, G. N. Bowers Jr., M. Horder, and D. W. Moss, “Provisional recommendations on IFCC methods for the measurement of catalytic concentrations of enzymes. Part 2. IFCC method for aspartate aminotransferase,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. F19–F29, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. B. Mc Comb and G. N. Bowers, Alkaline Phosphatase, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1979.
  22. L. Jendrassik and P. Gróf, “Vereinfachte Photometrische Methoden zur Bestimmung des Blutbilirubins,” Biochemische Zeitschrift, vol. 297, pp. 82–89, 1938. View at Google Scholar
  23. F. C. Pearlman and R. T. Y. Lee, “Detection and measurement of total bilirubin in serum, with use of surfactants as solubilizing agents,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 447–453, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Jaffe, “Uber den Niederschlag, Welchen Pikrinsaure in Normalen Harn Erzeugt und uber neue Reaktion des Kreatinines. H-S Z Physiol,” Chemistry, vol. 10, pp. 391–400, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  25. T. G. Cole, S. G. Klotzsch, J. McNamara et al., “Measurement of triglyceride concentration,” in Handbook of Lipoprotein Testing, N. Riafi, G. R. Warnick, and M. H. Dominiczak, Eds., pp. 115–126, AACC Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  26. A. H. Betti, A. C. Stein, E. Dallegrave et al., “Acute and repeated-doses (28 days) toxicity study of Hypericum polyanthemum Klotzsch ex Reichardt (Guttiferare) in mice,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 2349–2355, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. A. Loomis and A. W. Hayes, Loomis’s Essentials of Toxicology, vol. 4, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1996.
  28. B. Schilter, C. Andersson, R. Anton et al., “Guidance for the safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations for use in food and food supplements,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1625–1649, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. E. Hilaly, Z. H. Israili, and B. Lyoussi, “Acute and chronic toxicological studies of Ajuga iva in experimental animals,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Wooley, in A Guide To Practical Toxicology Evaluation, Prediction and Risk, vol. 465, Informa Healthcare, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2008.
  31. J. T. Mukinda and P. F. K. Eagles, “Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity profiles of the aqueous extract of Polygala fruticosa in female mice and rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 236–240, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. A. R. Lina, A. P. M. Wolterbeek, Y. Suwa et al., “Subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study, preceded by an in utero exposure phase, with arachidonate-enriched triglyceride oil (SUNTGA40S) in rats,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 326–335, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. H. Upur, N. Amat, B. Blažeković, and A. Talip, “Protective effect of Cichorium glandulosum root extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced and galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity in mice,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 2022–2030, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. M. Antonelli-Ushirobira, E. N. Kaneshima, M. Gabriel, E. A. Audi, L. C. Marques, and J. C. P. Mello, “Acute and subchronic toxicological evaluation of the semipurified extract of seeds of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) in rodents,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 1817–1820, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Muhammad, L. G. Hassan, S. M. Dangoggo et al., “Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of kernel extract of Sclerocarya birrea in rats,” Scientific World Journal, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1597–6343, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  36. D. D. Woodman, “Assessment of Hepatotoxicity,” in Animal Clinical Chemistry, A Primer for Toxicologists, G. O. Evans, Ed., pp. 71–86, Taylor and Francis, London, UK, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  37. G. Yao, “Bilirubin Metabolism,” Chinese Journal of Hepatology, vol. 9, p. 17, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  38. N. Lameire, W. Van Biesen, and R. Vanholder, “Acute renal failure,” The Lancet, vol. 365, no. 9457, pp. 417–430, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Kaplan, R. Jack, K. E. Opheim et al., Clinical Chemistry Interpretation and Techniques, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 4th edition, 1995.