Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 472869, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/472869
Research Article

Computational Study to Determine When to Initiate and Alternate Therapy in HIV Infection

1Department of Systems Immunology and Braunschweig Integrated Centre of Systems Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstraße 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
2Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstraße 3, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
3Institute for Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Braunschweig University of Technology, Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany

Received 15 February 2014; Revised 7 April 2014; Accepted 10 April 2014; Published 11 May 2014

Academic Editor: Filippo Castiglione

Copyright © 2014 Matthias Haering et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. UNAIDS, Global Report: UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2010, 2010.
  2. F. Clavel and A. J. Hance, “HIV Drug Resistance,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, no. 10, pp. 1023–1035, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. DHHS, Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and AdoLescents. Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents, Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 2013.
  4. A. M. Jeffrey, X. Xia, and I. K. Craig, “When to initiate HIV therapy: a control theoretic approach,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 1213–1220, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. F. Castiglione and P. Paci, “Criticality of timing for anti-HIV therapy initiation,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 12, Article ID e15294, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. Paci, F. Martini, M. Bernaschi, G. D'Offizi, and F. Castiglione, “Timely HAART initiation may pave the way for a better viral control,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 11, article 56, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. A. Hernandez-Vargas, P. Colaneri, and R. H. Middleton, “Optimal therapy scheduling for a simplified HIV infection model,” Automatica, vol. 49, pp. 2874–2880, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  8. E. A. Hernandez-Vargas, P. Colaneri, and R. H. Middleton, “Switching strategies to mitigate HIV mutation,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. J. Martinez-Picado, E. Negredo, L. Ruiz et al., “Alternation of antiretroviral drug regimens for HIV infection: a randomized, controlled trial,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 81–89, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. Hernandez-Vargas, P. Colaneri, R. Middleton, and F. Blanchini, “Discrete-time control for switched positive systems with application to mitigating viral escape,” International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1093–1111, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. A. Nowak, R. M. May, and R. M. Anderson, “The evolutionary dynamics of HIV-1 quasispecies and the development of immunodeficiency disease,” AIDS, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 1095–1103, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. Adams, H. Banks, H. Kwon, and H. Tran, “Dynamic multidrug therapies for HIV: optimal and STI control approaches,” Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, vol. 1, pp. 223–241, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  13. A. S. Perelson, D. E. Kirschner, and R. de Boer, “Dynamics of HIV infection of CD4+ T cells,” Mathematical Biosciences, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 81–125, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. H. Bajaria, G. Webb, M. Cloyd, and D. Kirschner, “Dynamics of naive and memory CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV-1 disease progression,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 41–58, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. E. Kirschner, R. Mehr, and A. S. Perelson, “Role of the thymus in pediatric HIV-1 infection,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 95–109, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. Ye, D. E. Kirschner, and A. P. Kourtis, “The thymus during HIV disease: role in pathogenesis and in immune recovery,” Current HIV Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 177–183, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Kirschner, G. F. Webb, and M. Cloyd, “Model of HIV-1 disease progression based on virus-induced lymph node homing and homing-induced apoptosis of CD4+ lymphocytes,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 352–362, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Rong and A. S. Perelson, “Modeling HIV persistence, the latent reservoir, and viral blips,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 260, no. 2, pp. 308–331, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Z. Shu, E. A. Hernandez-Vargas, and R. H. Middleton, “A math ematical study on immune activation and related dynamics in HIV infection,” in Proceedings of the 50th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and European Control Conference (CDC-ECC '11), vol. 2, pp. 3682–3687, 2011.
  20. I. B. Hogue, S. H. Bajaria, B. A. Fallert, S. Qin, T. A. Reinhart, and D. E. Kirschner, “The dual role of dendritic cells in the immune response to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 2228–2239, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. S. Perelson, A. U. Neumann, M. Markowitz, J. M. Leonard, and D. D. Ho, “HIV-1 dynamics in vivo: virion clearance rate, infected cell life-span, and viral generation time,” Science, vol. 271, no. 5255, pp. 1582–1586, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. S. Callaway and A. S. Perelson, “HIV-1 infection and low steady state viral loads,” Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 29–64, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Yates, J. Stark, N. Klein, R. Antia, and R. Callard, “Understanding the slow depletion of memory CD4+ T cells in HIV infection,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 4, no. 5, Article ID e177, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. N. Dalal, D. Greenhalgh, and X. Mao, “A stochastic model for internal HIV dynamics,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 341, no. 2, pp. 1084–1101, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. N. I. Stilianakis, K. Dietz, and D. Schenzle, “Analysis of a model for the pathogenesis of AIDS,” Mathematical Biosciences, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 27–46, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. A. Hernandez-Vargas and R. H. Middleton, “Modeling the three stages in HIV infection,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 320, pp. 33–40, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  27. J. M. Orenstein, “The macrophage in HIV infection,” Immunobiology, vol. 204, no. 5, pp. 598–602, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. Kirschner and A. Perelson, “A model for the immune system response to HIV: AZT treatment studies,” in Mathematical Population Dynamics, pp. 295–310, Wuerz, Winnepeg, Canada, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  29. M. Hadjiandreou, R. Conejeros, and V. S. Vassiliadis, “Towards a long-term model construction for the dynamic simulation of HIV infection,” Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 489–504, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. J. Mode, Applications of Monte Carlo Methods in Biology, Medicine and Other Fields of Science, InTech, 2011.
  31. A. S. Fauci, G. Pantaleo, S. Stanley, and D. Weissman, “Immunopathogenic mechanisms of HIV infection,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 124, no. 7, pp. 654–663, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Sungkanuparph, R. K. Groger, E. T. Overton, V. J. Fraser, and W. G. Powderly, “Persistent low-level viraemia and virological failure in HIV-1-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy,” HIV Medicine, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 437–441, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Sáez-Cirión, C. Bacchus, L. Hocqueloux et al., “Post-treatment HIV-1 controllers with a long-term Virological remission after the interruption of early initiated antiretroviral therapy ANRS VISCONTI study,” PLoS Pathogens, vol. 9, Article ID e1003211, 2013. View at Google Scholar