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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 482704, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/482704
Research Article

Consumption of Green Coffee Reduces Blood Pressure and Body Composition by Influencing 11β-HSD1 Enzyme Activity in Healthy Individuals: A Pilot Crossover Study Using Green and Black Coffee

Department of Dietetics, Nutrition and Biological Sciences, Queen Margaret University, Queen Margaret University Drive, Musselburgh, East Lothian, Edinburgh EH21 6UU, UK

Received 17 February 2014; Accepted 3 July 2014; Published 16 July 2014

Academic Editor: Gianluca Bardini

Copyright © 2014 R. Revuelta-Iniesta and E. A. S. Al-Dujaili. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Dietary polyphenols may have a protective role against the development of CVD. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of green coffee (GC), rich in chlorogenic acid, and black coffee (BC) on cardiovascular markers. A randomised pilot crossover study was performed on healthy subjects who consumed both coffees for 2 weeks. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, and arterial elasticity after each intervention and collected urine samples to monitor antioxidant capacity. Free cortisol and cortisone levels were obtained from urine and analysed by specific ELISA methods. Systolic blood pressure ( ) and arterial elasticity ( ) were significantly reduced after GC. BMI ( for BC; for GC) and abdominal fat ( for BC; for GC) were also significantly reduced with no changes in energy intake. Urinary free cortisol was significantly reduced from  nmol/day to  nmol/day following GC and increased to  nmol/day after BC. Urinary free cortisone increased by 18% following BC and 9% following GC (nonsignificant). Cortisol/cortisone ratio (indicating 11β-HSD1 activity) was reduced after GC (from to , ). This suggests that GC can play a role in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. Further research including hypertensive and overweight individuals will now be justified to clarify whether GC could have a therapeutic role in CVD.