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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 514729, 10 pages
Research Article

Numerical Simulation and Clinical Implications of Stenosis in Coronary Blood Flow

1National Heart Center Singapore, 5 Hospital Drive, Singapore 169609
2Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857
3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
4Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
5Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576
6Fluid Dynamics Department, Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, No. 16-16 Connexis North, Singapore 138632

Received 28 February 2014; Accepted 29 April 2014; Published 2 June 2014

Academic Editor: Bruno Levy

Copyright © 2014 Jun-Mei Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is the gold standard to guide coronary interventions. However it can only be obtained via invasive angiography. The objective of this study is to propose a noninvasive method to determine by combining computed tomography angiographic (CTA) images and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. Utilizing the method, this study explored the effects of diameter stenosis (DS), stenosis length, and location on . The baseline left anterior descending (LAD) model was reconstructed from CTA of a healthy porcine heart. A series of models were created by adding an idealized stenosis (with DS from 45% to 75%, stenosis length from 4 mm to 16 mm, and at 4 locations separately). Through numerical simulations, it was found that decreased (from 0.89 to 0.74), when DS increased (from 45% to 75%). Similarly, decreased with the increase of stenosis length and the stenosis located at proximal position had lower than that at distal position. These findings are consistent with clinical observations. Applying the same method on two patients’ CTA images yielded close to the FFR values obtained via invasive angiography. The proposed noninvasive computation of is promising for clinical diagnosis of CAD.