A Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Model of a Human Dry Skull for Bone-Conduction Hearing
Contour plot of the directional displacement of the skull. The same row and column represent the same simulated frequency and phase, respectively. The simulated frequencies are 100 Hz in (a) and (b) and 600 Hz in (c) and (d). The phase difference of the displacement between ((a) or (c)) and ((b) or (d)) is 180 degrees. Red arrows indicate the position and direction (i.e., ) of the applied force (1 μN). Gray arrows with the same line type represent the movement of the skull at the ipsilateral and contralateral sides in the same phase. The skull shows the translational motion in (a) and (b), whereas the skull shows the contraction and expansion in (c) and (d). The legend for displacement in (a) and (c) corresponds to the simulations in the same row. For example, the legend in (a) covers (a) and (b). The “displacem.” in the legend means the displacement in millimeters (mm).
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