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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 537941, 6 pages
Research Article

Effect of Modulated Alternating and Direct Current Iontophoresis on Transdermal Delivery of Lidocaine Hydrochloride

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Mercer University, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA

Received 9 February 2014; Accepted 1 May 2014; Published 15 May 2014

Academic Editor: Sandeep Nema

Copyright © 2014 Gaurav Bhatia and Ajay K. Banga. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The objective of this study was to investigate the iontophoretic delivery of lidocaine hydrochloride through porcine skin and to compare the effects of modulated alternating and direct current iontophoresis. Continuous and modulated iontophoresis was applied for one hour and two hours (0-1 h and 4-5th h) using a 1% w/v solution of lidocaine hydrochloride. Tape stripping was done to quantify the amount of drug permeated into stratum corneum and skin extraction studies were performed to determine the amount of drug in stripped skin. Receptor was sampled and analyzed over predefined time periods. The amount of lidocaine delivered across porcine skin after modulated direct current iontophoresis for 2 h was μg/sq·cm compared to μg/sq·cm after modulated alternating current iontophoresis for 2 h. Modulated direct current iontophoresis also enhanced lidocaine delivery by twelvefold compared to passive delivery as μg/sq·cm of lidocaine was delivered after passive delivery. Modulated iontophoresis enhanced the delivery of lidocaine hydrochloride across porcine skin compared to the passive delivery. Modulated alternating current iontophoresis for duration of 2 h at frequency of 1 kHz was found to be comparable to the continuous direct current iontophoresis for 1 h.