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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 542549, 7 pages
Research Article

Differential Effects of Dry Eye Disorders on Metabolomic Profile by 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

1Ophthalmic Research Unit “Santiago Grisolía”, University Hospital Doctor Peset, Avenue Gaspar Aguilar 90, 46017 Valencia, Valencia, Spain
2Ophthalmic Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
3University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain
4Central Unit of Research in Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
5Clinical Hospital Research Foundation (INCLIVA), Valencia, Spain

Received 28 February 2014; Revised 16 April 2014; Accepted 29 April 2014; Published 21 May 2014

Academic Editor: Alfredo García-Layana

Copyright © 2014 Carmen Galbis-Estrada et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We used 1H NMR spectroscopy to analyze the metabolomic profile of reflex tears from patients with dry eye disorders (DEDs). 90 subjects were divided into 2 groups: (1) patients with DEDs (DEDG; ) and (2) healthy subjects (CG; ). Additionally, the DEDG was subdivided into 2 subgroups based on DED severity: mild-to-moderate and moderate ( and , resp.). Personal interviews and systematized ophthalmologic examinations were carried out. Reflex tears (20–30 μL) were collected by gently rubbing in the inferior meniscus of both eyelids with a microglass pipette and stored at −80°C until analysis. NMR spectra were acquired using a standard one-dimensional pulse sequence with water suppression. Data were processed and transferred to MATLAB for further chemometric analysis. Main differences in tear composition between DEDG and CG were found in cholesterol, N-acetylglucosamine, glutamate, creatine, amino-n-butyrate, choline, acetylcholine, arginine, phosphoethanolamine, glucose, and phenylalanine levels. This metabolic fingerprint helped also to discriminate between the three additional subgroups of DEDG. Our results suggest that tear metabolic differences between DEDG and CG identified by NMR could be useful in understanding ocular surface pathogenesis and improving biotherapy.