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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 548097, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/548097
Research Article

EBV, HCMV, HHV6, and HHV7 Screening in Bone Marrow Samples from Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

1Unidad de Investigación Médica en Epidemiología Clínica, Hospital de Pediatría, CMN Siglo-XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Avenida Cuauhtémoc 330, Colonia Doctores, 06720 México, DF, Mexico
2Unidad de Investigación en Virología y Cáncer, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, Dr. Márquez 162, Colonia Doctores, 06720 México, DF, Mexico
3Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad 3000, 04510 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
4Unidad de Investigación Médica en Inmunología e Infectología, Hospital de Infectología, CMN La Raza, IMSS, Calzada Vallejo y Jacarandas S/N Colonia La Raza, 02990 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
5Grupo Mexicano Interinstitucional para la Identificación de las Causas de la Leucemia Infantil (GMIICLI), Avenida Cuauhtémoc 330, Colonia Doctores, 06720 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
6Servicio de Oncología, Hospital Pediátrico Moctezuma, Secretaría de Salud (SSa) del D.F., Oriente 158-189, Colonia Moctezuma 2a Sección, 15530 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
7Servicio de Hematología Pediátrica, CMN 20 de Noviembre, Instituto de Seguridad Social al Servicio de los Trabajadores del Estado, Félix Cuevas 540, Colonia Del Valle, 03229 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
8Servicio de Hematología Pediátrica, Hospital General Gaudencio González Garza, CMN La Raza, IMSS, Calzada Vallejo y Jacarandas S/N Colonia La Raza, 02990 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
9Servicio de Onco-Pediatría, Hospital Juárez de México, SSa, Avenida Instituto Politécnico Nacional 5160, Colonia Magdalena de las Salinas, 07760 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
10Servicio de Hematología, UMAE, Hospital de Pediatría, CMN Siglo-XXI, IMSS, Avenida Cuauhtémoc 330, Colonia Doctores, 06720 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
11Hospital General Regional Carlos McGregor Sánchez Navarro, IMSS, Avenida Gabriel Mancera 222, Colonia Del Valle, 03100 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
12Servicio de Hematología Pediátrica, Hospital General de México, SSa, Eje 2A Sur (Dr. Balmis) 148, Colonia Doctores, 06726 Mexico City, DF, Mexico

Received 2 July 2014; Revised 26 August 2014; Accepted 26 August 2014; Published 18 September 2014

Academic Editor: Richard J. Q. McNally

Copyright © 2014 A. Morales-Sánchez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in childhood worldwide and Mexico has reported one of the highest incidence rates. An infectious etiology has been suggested and supported by epidemiological evidences; however, the identity of the involved agent(s) is not known. We considered that early transmitted lymphotropic herpes viruses were good candidates, since transforming mechanisms have been described for them and some are already associated with human cancers. In this study we interrogated the direct role of EBV, HCMV, HHV6, and HHV7 human herpes viruses in childhood ALL. Viral genomes were screened in 70 bone marrow samples from ALL patients through standard and a more sensitive nested PCR. Positive samples were detected only by nested PCR indicating a low level of infection. Our result argues that viral genomes were not present in all leukemic cells, and, hence, infection most likely was not part of the initial genetic lesions leading to ALL. The high statistical power of the study suggested that these agents are not involved in the genesis of ALL in Mexican children. Additional analysis showed that detected infections or coinfections were not associated with prognosis.