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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 568738, 5 pages
Review Article

Novel Biomarkers for Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

1Laboratory of Interventional Cardiology and Department of Cardiology, Clinica Mediterranea, Orazio 2, 80121 Naples, Italy
2Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, Federico II University of Naples and IEOS CNR, 80131 Naples, Italy
3IRCCS SDN Foundation, 80143 Naples, Italy

Received 15 November 2013; Accepted 14 March 2014; Published 29 May 2014

Academic Editor: Adis Tasanarong

Copyright © 2014 Carlo Briguori et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) may be classified in 2 groups: (1) those representing changes in renal function (e.g., serum creatinine or cystatin C and urine flow rate) and (2) those reflecting kidney damage (e.g., kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin-18, etc.). According to these 2 fundamental criteria, 4 subgroups have been proposed: (1) no marker change; (2) damage alone; (3) functional change alone; and (4) combined damage and functional change. Therefore, a new category of patients with “subclinical AKI” (that is, an increase in damage markers alone without simultaneous loss of kidney function) has been identified. This condition has been associated with higher risk of adverse outcomes (including renal replacement therapy and mortality) at followup. The ability to measure these physiological variables may lead to identification of patients at risk for AKI and early diagnosis of AKI and may lead to variables, which may inform therapeutic decisions.