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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 583606, 20 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/583606
Research Article

Structural Comparison, Substrate Specificity, and Inhibitor Binding of AGPase Small Subunit from Monocot and Dicot: Present Insight and Future Potential

1Agri-Bioinformatics Promotion Programme, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam 785013, India
2Department of Life Science & Bioinformatics, Assam University, Silchar, Assam 788011, India

Received 28 February 2014; Revised 8 April 2014; Accepted 21 April 2014; Published 2 September 2014

Academic Editor: Rituraj Purohit

Copyright © 2014 Kishore Sarma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is the first rate limiting enzyme of starch biosynthesis pathway and has been exploited as the target for greater starch yield in several plants. The structure-function analysis and substrate binding specificity of AGPase have provided enormous potential for understanding the role of specific amino acid or motifs responsible for allosteric regulation and catalytic mechanisms, which facilitate the engineering of AGPases. We report the three-dimensional structure, substrate, and inhibitor binding specificity of AGPase small subunit from different monocot and dicot crop plants. Both monocot and dicot subunits were found to exploit similar interactions with the substrate and inhibitor molecule as in the case of their closest homologue potato tuber AGPase small subunit. Comparative sequence and structural analysis followed by molecular docking and electrostatic surface potential analysis reveal that rearrangements of secondary structure elements, substrate, and inhibitor binding residues are strongly conserved and follow common folding pattern and orientation within monocot and dicot displaying a similar mode of allosteric regulation and catalytic mechanism. The results from this study along with site-directed mutagenesis complemented by molecular dynamics simulation will shed more light on increasing the starch content of crop plants to ensure the food security worldwide.