Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 616817, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/616817
Review Article

Mannan-Binding Lectin in Cardiovascular Disease

1Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital Institute, Rzgowska 281/289, 93-338 Łódź, Poland
2Laboratory of Immunobiology of Infections, Institute of Medical Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lodowa 106, 93-232 Łódź, Poland

Received 27 January 2014; Accepted 10 April 2014; Published 30 April 2014

Academic Editor: Robert M. Starke

Copyright © 2014 Izabela Pągowska-Klimek and Maciej Cedzyński. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. W. Turner, “Mannose-binding lectin: the pluripotent molecule of the innate immune system,” Immunology Today, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 532–540, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. C. Kilpatrick, “Mannan-binding lectin and its role in innate immunity,” Transfusion Medicine, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 335–352, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. U. Holmskov, S. Thiel, and J. C. Jensenius, “Collectins and ficolins: humoral lectins of the innate immune defense,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 21, pp. 547–578, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Thiel, “Complement activating soluble pattern recognition molecules with collagen-like regions, mannan-binding lectin, ficolins and associated proteins,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 44, no. 16, pp. 3875–3888, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Cedzyński, A. S. Świerzko, and D. C. Kilpatrick, “Factors of the lectin pathway of complement associations in neonates,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2012, Article ID 363246, 8 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. A. S. Świerzko, D. C. Kilpatrick, and M. Cedzyński, “Mannan bindig lectin in malignancy,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 16–21, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  7. D. C. Kilpatrick, “Phospholipid-binding activity of human mannan-binding lectin,” Immunology Letters, vol. 61, no. 2-3, pp. 191–195, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. M. Estabrook, D. L. Jack, N. J. Klein, and G. A. Jarvis, “Mannose-binding lectin binds to two major outer membrane proteins, opacity protein and porin of Neisseria meningitidis,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 172, no. 6, pp. 3784–3792, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. J. Nauta, N. Raashou-Jensen, A. Roos et al., “Mannose-binding lectin engagement with late apoptotic and necrotic cells,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 2853–2863, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. Hummelshoj, L. M. Fog, H. O. Madsen, R. B. Sim, and P. Garred, “Comparative study of the human ficolins reveals unique features of Ficolin-3 (Hakata antigen),” Molecular Immunology, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1623–1632, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Wallis, “Interactions between mannose-binding lectin and MASPs during complement activation by the lectin pathway,” Immunobiology, vol. 212, no. 4-5, pp. 289–299, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. S. Presanis, M. Kojima, and R. B. Sim, “Biochemistry and genetics of mannan-binding lectin (MBL),” Biochemical Society Transactions, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 748–752, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. O. Madsen, P. Garred, S. Thiel et al., “Interplay between promoter and structural gene variants control basal serum level of mannan-binding protein,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 155, no. 6, pp. 3013–3020, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. C. Kilpatrick, “Clinical significance of mannan-binding lectin and L-ficolin,” in Collagen-Related Lectins in Innate Immunity, D. Kilpatrick, Ed., pp. 57–84, Research Signpost, Trivandrum, India, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  15. S. Thiel and M. Gadjeva, “Humoral pattern recognition molecules: mannan-binding lectin and ficolins,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 653, pp. 58–73, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. S. Butler, D. Sim, E. Tam, D. Devine, and C. M. Overall, “Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) mutants are susceptible to matrix metalloproteinase proteolysis. Potential role in human MBL deficiency,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 20, pp. 17511–17519, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Y. J. Ma, M. O. Skjoedt, and P. Garred, “Collectin-11/MASP complex formation triggers activation of the lectin complement pathway—the fifth lectin pathway initiation complex,” Journal of Innate Immunity, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 242–250, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. M. L. Henriksen, J. Brandt, J. P. Andrieu et al., “Heteromeric complexes of native collectin kidney 1 and collectin liver 1 are found in the circulation with MASPs and activate the complement system,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 191, pp. 6117–6127, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  19. R. Wallis, “Structural and functional aspects of complement activation by mannose-binding protein,” Immunobiology, vol. 205, no. 4-5, pp. 433–445, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. E. Degn, A. G. Hansen, R. Steffensen, C. Jacobsen, J. C. Jensenius, and S. Thiel, “Map44, a human protein associated with pattern recognition molecules of the complement system and regulating the lectin pathway of complement activation,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 1167–1178, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  21. M. Skjoedt, T. Hummelshoj, Y. Palarasah et al., “A novel mannose-binding lectin/ficolin-associated protein is highly expressed in heart and skeletal muscle tissues and inhibits complement activation,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 285, no. 11, pp. 8234–8243, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. V. Rossi, S. Cseh, I. Bally, N. M. Thielens, J. C. Jensenius, and G. J. Arlaud, “Substrate specificities of recombinant mannan-binding-associated serine proteases-1 and -2,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 276, no. 44, pp. 40880–40887, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. E. Degn, L. Jensen, A. G. Hansen et al., “Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease (MASP)-1 is crucial for lectin pathway activation in human serum, whereas neither MASP-1 nor MASP-3 is required for alternative pathway function,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 189, no. 8, pp. 3957–3969, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  24. D. Heja, A. Kocsis, J. Dobo et al., “Revised mechanism of complement lectin-pathway activation revealing the role of serine protease MASP-1 as the exclusive activator of MASP-2,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 109, pp. 10498–10503, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  25. M. Megyeri, V. Harmat, B. Major et al., “Quantitative characterization of the activation steps of mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine proteases (MASPs) points to the central role of MASP-1 in the initiation of complement lectin pathway,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 288, no. 13, pp. 8922–8934, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  26. C. Chen and R. Wallis, “Two mechanisms for mannose-binding protein modulation of the activity of its associated serine proteases,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 279, no. 25, pp. 26058–26065, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. Yongqing, N. Drentin, R. C. Duncan, L. C. Wijeyewickrema, and R. N. Pike, “Mannose-binding lectin serine proteases and associated proteins of the lectin pathway of complement: two genes, five proteins and many functions?” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta—Proteins and Proteomics, vol. 1824, no. 1, pp. 253–262, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Matsushita, Y. Endo, and T. Fujita, “Structural and functional overview of the lectin complement pathway: its molecular basis and physiological implication,” Archivum Immunologiae et Therapia Experimentalis, vol. 61, pp. 273–283, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  29. L. R. La Bonte, V. I. Pavlov, Y. S. Tan et al., “Mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 is a significant contributor to coagulation in a murine model of occlusive thrombosis,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 188, no. 2, pp. 885–891, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Krarup, K. C. Gulla, P. Gál, K. Hajela, and R. B. Sim, “The action of MBL-associated serine protease 1 (MASP1) on factor XIII and fibrinogen,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta—Proteins and Proteomics, vol. 1784, no. 9, pp. 1294–1300, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. Endo, N. Nakazawa, D. Iwaki, M. Takahashi, M. Matsushita, and T. Fujita, “Interactions of ficolin and mannose-binding lectin with fibrinogen/fibrin augment the lectin complement pathway,” Journal of Innate Immunity, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 33–42, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. C. Gulla, K. Gupta, A. Krarup et al., “Activation of mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases leads to generation of a fibrin clot,” Immunology, vol. 129, no. 4, pp. 482–495, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Takahashi, W. Chang, M. Takahashi et al., “Mannose-binding lectin and its associated proteases (MASPs) mediate coagulation and its deficiency is a risk factor in developing complications from infection, including disseminated intravascular coagulation,” Immunobiology, vol. 216, no. 1-2, pp. 96–102, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. K. Hess, R. Ajjan, F. Phoenix, J. Dobó, P. Gál, and V. Schroeder, “Effects of MASP-1 of the complement system on activation of coagulation factors and plasma clot formation,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 4, Article ID e35690, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Megyeri, V. Makó, L. Beinrohr et al., “Complement protease MASP-1 activates human endothelial cells: PAR4 activation is a link between complement and endothelial function,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 183, no. 5, pp. 3409–3416, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Dobó, B. Major, K. A. Kékesi et al., “Cleavage of Kininogen and subsequent Bradykinin release by the complement component: mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease (MASP)-1,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 5, Article ID e20036, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. Castellano, R. Melchiorre, A. Loverre et al., “Therapeutic targeting of classical and lectin pathways of complement protects from ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal damage,” The American Journal of Pathology, vol. 176, no. 4, pp. 1648–1659, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Møller-Kristensen, W. K. E. Ip, L. Shi et al., “Deficiency of mannose-binding lectin greatly increases susceptibility to postburn infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 176, no. 3, pp. 1769–1775, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. de Vries, S. J. Walter, C. J. Peutz-Kootstra, T. G. A. M. Wolfs, L. W. E. van Heurn, and W. A. Buurman, “The mannose-binding lectin-pathway is involved in complement activation in the course of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 165, no. 5, pp. 1677–1688, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. Miwa, T. Sato, D. Gullipalli, M. Nangaku, and W. C. Song, “Blocking properdin, the alternative pathway, and anaphylatoxin receptors ameliorates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in decay-accelerating factor and CD59 double-knockout mice,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 190, no. 7, pp. 3552–3559, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  41. P. van der Pol, N. Schlagwein, D. J. van Gijlswijk et al., “Mannan-binding lectin mediates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury independent of complement activation,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 877–887, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. P. Berger, A. Roos, M. J. K. Mallat, T. Fujita, J. W. de Fijter, and M. R. Daha, “Association between mannose-binding lectin levels and graft survival in kidney transplantation,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1361–1366, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. P. Berger, A. Roos, M. J. K. Mallat et al., “Low pretransplantation mannose-binding lectin levels predict superior patient and graft survival after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 2416–2422, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. T. Bay, S. S. Sorensen, J. M. Hansen, H. O. Madsen, and P. Garred, “Low mannose-binding lectin serum levels are associated with reduced kidney graft survival,” Kidney International, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 264–271, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  45. Y. Gorgi, I. Sfar, H. Aouadi et al., “Mannose binding lectin (+54) exon 1 gene polymorphism in Tunisian kidney transplant patients,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 660–662, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. Damman, J. L. Kok, H. Snieder et al., “Lectin complement pathway gene profile of the donor and recipient does not influence graft outcome after kidney transplantation,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 50, no. 1-2, pp. 1–8, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. Damman and M. A. Seelen, “Mannan-binding lectin: a two-faced regulator of renal allograft injury?” Kidney International, no. 83, pp. 191–193, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  48. M. Osthoff, V. Piezzi, T. Klima et al., “Impact of mannose-binding lectin deficiency on radiocontrast-induced renal dysfunction: a post-hoc analysis of a multicenter randomized controlled trial,” BMC Nephrology, vol. 13, article 99, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  49. A. F. Ducruet, S. A. Sosunov, B. E. Zacharia et al., “The neuroprotective effect of genetic mannose-binding lectin deficiency is not sustained in the sub-acute phase of stroke,” Translational Stroke Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 588–599, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. H. Morrison, J. Frye, G. Davis-Gorman et al., “The contribution of mannose binding lectin to reperfusion injury after ischemic stroke,” Current Neurovascular Research, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 52–63, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. F. Orsini, P. Villa, S. Parrella et al., “Targeting mannose-binding lectin confers long-lastin protection with a surprisingly wide therapeutic window in cerebral ischemia,” Circulation, vol. 126, no. 12, pp. 1484–1494, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  52. A. Elvington, C. Atkinson, H. Zhu et al., “The alternative complement pathway propagates inflammation and injury in murine ischemic stroke,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 189, no. 9, pp. 4640–4647, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  53. A. Cervera, A. M. Planas, C. Justicia et al., “Genetically-defined deficiency of mannose-binding lectin is associated with protection after experimental stroke in mice and outcome in human stroke,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 2, Article ID e8433, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. Osthoff, M. Katan, F. Fluri et al., “Mannose-binding lectin deficiency is associated with smaller infarction size and favorable outcome in ischemic stroke patients,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 6, Article ID e21338, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Z. Y. Wang, Z. R. Sun, and L. M. Zhang, “The relationship between serum mannose-binding lectin levels and acute ischemic stroke risk,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 248–253, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  56. S. J. Budd, R. M. Aris, A. A. Medaiyese, S. L. Tilley, and I. P. Neuringer, “Increased plasma mannose binding lectin levels are associated with bronchiolitis obliterans after lung transplantation,” Respiratory Research, vol. 13, article 56, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  57. S. Hodge, M. Dean, G. Hodge, M. Holmes, and P. N. Reynolds, “Decreased efferocytosis and mannose binding lectin in the airway in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome,” Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 589–595, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. K. E. Carroll, M. M. Dean, S. L. Heatley et al., “High levels of mannose-binding lectin are associated with poor outcomes after lung transplantation,” Transplantation, vol. 91, no. 9, pp. 1044–1049, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. M. Kwakkel-van Erp, A. W. M. Paantjens, D. A. van Kessel et al., “Mannose-binding lectin deficiency linked to cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation and survival in lung transplantation,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 165, no. 3, pp. 410–416, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. M. Munster, W. van der Bij, M. B. Breukink et al., “Association between donor MBL promoter haplotype and graft survival and the development of BOS after lung transplantation,” Transplantation, vol. 86, no. 12, pp. 1857–1863, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. D. Eurich, S. Boas-Knoop, A. Yahyazadeh et al., “Role of mannose-binding lectin-2 polymorphism in the development of acute cellular rejection after transplantation for hepatitis C virus-induced liver disease,” Transplant Infectious Disease, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 488–495, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  62. M. Zhang, K. Takahashi, E. M. Alicot et al., “Activation of the lectin pathway by natural IgM in a model of ischemia/reperfusion injury,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 177, no. 7, pp. 4727–4734, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. H. Lee, D. J. Green, L. Lai et al., “Early complement factors in the local tissue immunocomplex generated during intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 972–981, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. N. Busche, V. Pavlov, K. Takahashi, and G. L. Stahl, “Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury is dependent on both IgM and mannose-binding lectin,” The American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 297, no. 5, pp. H1853–H1859, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. W. J. Schwaeble, N. J. Lynch, J. E. Clark et al., “Targeting of mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 confers protection from myocardial and gastrointestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, no. 18, pp. 7523–7528, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. L. Timmers, G. Pasterkamp, V. C. de Hoog, F. Arslan, Y. Appelman, and D. P. V. de Kleijn, “The innate immune response in reperfused myocardium,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 276–283, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. C. D. Collard, A. Vakeva, M. A. Morrissey et al., “Complement activation after oxidative stress: role of the lectin complement pathway,” The American Journal of Pathology, vol. 156, no. 5, pp. 1549–1556, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. E. Jordan, M. C. Montalto, and G. L. Stahl, “Inhibition of mannose-binding lectin reduces postischemic myocardial reperfusion injury,” Circulation, vol. 104, no. 12, pp. 1413–1418, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. C. Walsh, T. Bourcier, K. Takahashi et al., “Mannose-binding lectin is a regulator of inflammation that accompanies myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 175, no. 1, pp. 541–546, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. V. Pavlov, M. O. Skjoedt, Y. S. Yan, and A. Rosbjerg, “Endogenous and natural complement inhibitor attenuates myocadial injury and arteria thrombogenesis,” Circulation, vol. 126, no. 18, pp. 2227–2235, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  71. M. N. Busche, M. C. Walsh, M. E. McMullen, B. J. Guikema, and G. L. Stahl, “Mannose-binding lectin plays a critical role in myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion injury in a mouse model of diabetes,” Diabetologia, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1544–1551, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. E. Pesonen, M. Hallman, S. Sarna et al., “Mannose-binding lectin as a risk factor for acute coronary syndromes,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 591–598, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. Haahr-Pedersen, M. Bjerre, A. Flyvbjerg et al., “Level of complement activity predicts cardiac dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” Journal of Invasive Cardiology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 13–19, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. T. T. Keller, S. I. van Leuven, M. C. Meuwese et al., “Serum levels of mannose-binding lectin and the risk of future coronary artery disease in apparently healthy men and women,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 2345–2350, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. M. M. Schoos, L. Munthe-Fog, M. O. Skjoedt et al., “Association between lectin pathway initiators, c-reactive protein and left ventricular remodeling in myocardial infarction—a magnetic resonance study,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 54, no. 3-4, pp. 408–414, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  76. M. Trendelenburg, P. Theroux, A. Stebbins, C. Granger, P. Armstrong, and M. Pfisterer, “Influence of functional deficiency of complement mannose-binding lectin on outcome of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” European Heart Journal, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1181–1187, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. Y. M. Bilgin, A. Brand, S. P. Berger, M. R. Daha, and A. Roos, “Mannose-binding lectin is involved in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome after cardiac surgery: effects of blood transfusions,” Transfusion, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 601–608, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. L. T. Lai, D. C. Lee, W. Ko, K. Shevde, and M. Zhang, “Deficiency of complement factor MBL in a patient required cardiac surgery after an acute myocardial infarction with underlining chronic lymphocytic leukemia,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. e24–e26, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. C. B. Holt, S. Thiel, K. Munk, H. Ostergaard, H. Botker, and T. Hansen, “Association between endogenous complement inhibitor and myocardial salvage in patients with myocardial infarction,” European Heart Journal: Acute Cardiovascular Care, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 3–9, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  80. S. Saevarsdottir, O. O. Oskarsson, T. Aspelund et al., “Mannan binding lectin as an adjunct to risk assessment for myocardial infarction in individuals with enhanced risk,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 201, no. 1, pp. 117–125, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. I. T. Vengen, H. O. Madsen, P. Garred, C. Platou, L. Vatten, and V. Videm, “Mannose-binding lectin deficiency is associated with myocardial infarction: the HUNT2 study in Norway,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 591–598, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  82. L. G. Mellbin, A. Hamsten, K. Malmberg et al., “Mannose-binding lectin genotype and phenotype in patients with type 2 diabetes and myocardial infarction: a report from the DIGAMI 2 trial,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 2451–2456, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. R. A. Matthijsen, M. P. de Winther, D. Kuipers et al., “Macrophage-specific expression of mannose-binding lectin controls atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice,” Circulation, vol. 119, no. 16, pp. 2188–2195, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  84. A. Alipour, A. J. H. H. M. van Oostrom, J. P. H. van Wijk et al., “Mannose binding lectin deficiency and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism in normolipidemic subjects,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 206, no. 2, pp. 444–450, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. A. Shor and J. I. Phillips, “Histological and ultrastructural findings suggesting an initiating role for Chlamydia pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: a study of 50 cases,” Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. R. Sessa, M. Di Pietro, G. Schiavoni et al., “Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherosclerotic coronary arteries,” International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 301–306, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. D. Virok, Z. Kis, L. Kari et al., “Chlamydophila pneumoniae and human cytomegalovirus in atherosclerotic carotid plaques—combined presence and possible interactions,” Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 35–50, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. B. Atik, S. C. Johnston, and D. Dean, “Association of carotid plaque Lp-PLA(2) with macrophages and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection among patients at risk for stroke,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 6, Article ID e11026, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. A. Luque, M. M. Turu, N. Rovira, J. O. Juan-Babot, M. Slevin, and J. Krupinski, “Early atherosclerotic plaques show evidence of infection by Chlamydia pneumoniae,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 4, pp. 2423–2432, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  90. A. F. Swanson, R. A. B. Ezekowitz, A. Lee, and C. Kuo, “Human mannose-binding protein inhibits infection of HeLa cells by Chlamydia trachomatis,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 1607–1612, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. S. Rugonfalvi-Kiss, V. Endrész, H. O. Madsen et al., “Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae with coronary artery disease and its progression is dependent on the modifying effect of mannose-binding lectin,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 9, pp. 1071–1076, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. L. N. Troelsen, P. Garred, and S. Jacobsen, “Mortality and predictors of mortality in rheumatoid arthritis—a role for mannose-binding lectin?” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 536–543, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. L. N. Troelsen, P. Garred, H. O. Madsen, and S. Jacobsen, “Genetically determined high serum levels of mannose-binding lectin and agalactosyl IgG are associated with ischemic heart disease in rheumatoid arthritis,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 21–29, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. M. H. Biezeveld, I. M. Kuipers, J. Geissler et al., “Association of mannose-binding lectin genotype with cardiovascular abnormalities in Kawasaki disease,” The Lancet, vol. 361, no. 9365, pp. 1268–1270, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. M. H. Biezeveld, J. Geissler, G. J. Weverling et al., “Polymorphisms in the mannose-binding lectin gene as determinants of age-defined risk of coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 369–376, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. D. Schmauss and M. Weis, “Cardiac allograft vasculopathy: recent developments,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 16, pp. 2131–2141, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. A. M. Segura and L. M. Buja, “Cardiac allograft vasculopathy,” Texas Heart Institute Journal, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 400–402, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  98. T. M. Millington and J. C. Madsen, “Innate immunity and cardiac allograft rejection,” Kidney International. Supplement, vol. 78, no. 119, pp. S18–S21, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. W. M. Baldwin, M. Samaniego-Picota, E. K. Kasper et al., “Complement deposition in early cardiac transplant biopsies is associated with ischemic injury and subsequent rejection episodes,” Transplantation, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 894–900, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. A. E. Fiane, T. Ueland, S. Simonsen et al., “Low mannose-binding lectin and increased complement activation correlate to allograft vasculopathy, ischaemia, and rejection after human heart transplantation,” European Heart Journal, vol. 26, no. 16, pp. 1660–1665, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. J. E. Fildes, S. M. Shaw, A. H. Walker et al., “Mannose binding lectin deficiency offers protection from acute graft rejection after heart transplantation,” The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 2605–2614, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  102. P. Mejia and A. E. Davis III, “C1 inhibitor suppresses the endotoxic activity of a wide range of lipopolysaccharides and interacts with live gram-negative bacteria,” Shock, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 220–225, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  103. A. E. Davis III, P. Mejia, and F. Lu, “Biological activities of C1 inhibitor,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 45, no. 16, pp. 4057–4063, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. E. W. Nielsen, C. Waage, H. Fure et al., “Effect of supraphysiologic levels of C1-inhibitor on the classical, lectin and alternative pathways of complement,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1819–1826, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. A. E. Davis, F. Lu, and P. Mejia, “C1 inhibitor, a multi-functional serine protease inhibitor,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 104, no. 5, pp. 886–893, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. M. Buerke, T. Murohara, and A. M. Lefer, “Cardioprotective effects of a C1 esterase inhibitor in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion,” Circulation, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 393–402, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. M. Buerke, H. Schwertz, W. Seitz, J. Meyer, and H. Darius, “Novel small molecule inhibitor of C1s exerts cardioprotective effects in ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 167, no. 9, pp. 5375–5380, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. G. Horstick, A. Heimann, O. Götze et al., “Intracoronary application of C1 esterase inhibitor improves cardiac function and reduces myocardial necrosis in an experimental model of ischemia and reperfusion,” Circulation, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 701–708, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. G. Horstick, O. Berg, A. Heimann et al., “Application of C1-esterase inhibitor during reperfusion of ischemic myocardium: dose-related beneficial versus detrimental effects,” Circulation, vol. 104, no. 25, pp. 3125–3131, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. C. Schreiber, W. Heimisch, H. Schad et al., “C1-INH and its effect on infarct size and ventricular function in an acute pig model of infarction, cardiopulmonary bypass, and reperfusion,” Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 227–232, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. M. Buerke, D. Prüfer, M. Dahm, H. Oelert, J. Meyer, and H. Darius, “Blocking of classical complement pathway inhibits endothelial adhesion molecule expression and preserves ischemic myocardium from reperfusion injury,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 286, no. 1, pp. 429–438, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. F. Lu, S. M. Fernandes, and A. E. Davis III, “The effect of C1 inhibitor on myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury,” Cardiovascular Pathology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 75–80, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  113. J. Fu, G. Lin, Z. Wu et al., “Anti-apoptotic role for C1 inhibitor in ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial cell injury,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 349, no. 2, pp. 504–512, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. R. Bauernschmitt, H. Böhrer, and S. Hagl, “Rescue therapy with C1-esterase inhibitor concentrate after emergency coronary surgery for failed PTCA,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 636–638, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. C. de Zwaan, A. H. Kleine, J. H. C. Diris et al., “Continuous 48-h C1-inhibitor treatment, following reperfusion therapy, in patients with acute myocardial infarction,” European Heart Journal, vol. 23, no. 21, pp. 1670–1677, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. M. Thielmann, G. Marggraf, M. Neuhäuser et al., “Administration of C1-esterase inhibitor during emergency coronary artery bypass surgery in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction,” European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 285–293, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. K. Fattouch, G. Bianco, G. Speziale et al., “Beneficial effects of C1 esterase inhibitor in ST-elevation myocardial infarction in patients who underwent surgical reperfusion: a randomised double-blind study,” European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 326–332, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. Y. Banz and R. Rieben, “Role of complement and perspectives for intervention in ischemia-reperfusion damage,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 205–217, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. J. C. K. Fitch, S. Rollins, L. Matis et al., “Pharmacology and biological efficacy of a recombinant, humanized, single-chain antibody C5 complement inhibitor in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass,” Circulation, vol. 100, no. 25, pp. 2499–2506, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. C. B. Granger, K. W. Mahaffey, W. D. Weaver et al., “Pexelizumab, an anti-C5 complement antibody, as adjunctive therapy to primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction: the COMplement inhibition in Myocardial infarction treated with Angioplasty (COMMA) trial,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 10, pp. 1184–1190, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. K. W. Mahaffey, C. B. Granger, J. C. Nicolau et al., “Effect of pexelizumab, an anti-C5 complement antibody, as adjunctive therapy to fibrinolysis in acute myocardial infarction: the COMPlement inhibition in myocardial infarction treated with thromboLYtics (COMPLY) trial,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 10, pp. 1176–1183, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. S. K. Shernan, J. C. K. Fitch, N. A. Nussmeier et al., “Impact of pexelizumab, an anti-C5 complement antibody, on total mortality and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in cardiac surgical patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 942–949, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. E. D. Verrier, S. K. Shernan, K. M. Taylor et al., “Terminal complement blockade with pexelizumab during coronary artery bypass graft surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass: a randomized trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 291, no. 19, pp. 2319–2327, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. P. W. Armstrong, C. B. Granger, P. X. Adams et al., “Pexelizumab for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 297, pp. 43–51, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  125. L. Testa, W. J. van Gaal, R. Bhindi et al., “Pexelizumab in ischemic heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis on 15,196 patients,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 136, no. 4, pp. 884–893, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus