Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 630160, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/630160
Research Article

Canine Filarial Infections in a Human Brugia malayi Endemic Area of India

1Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pookode, Wayanad, Kerala 673576, India
2Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pookode, Wayanad, Kerala 673 576, India
3Department of Animal Husbandry, Kerala 695 033, India
4Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pookode, Wayanad, Kerala 673 576, India
5National Centre for Diseases Control, Kerala 673 003, India

Received 17 February 2014; Accepted 22 April 2014; Published 20 May 2014

Academic Editor: Fabio Ribeiro Braga

Copyright © 2014 Reghu Ravindran et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. J. Irwin, “Companion animal parasitology: a clinical perspective,” International Journal for Parasitology, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 581–593, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. D. Kelly, “Canine heart worm disease,” in Current Veterinary Therapy VII, pp. 326–335, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  3. M. Rishniw, S. C. Barr, K. W. Simpson, M. F. Frongillo, M. Franz, and J. L. Dominguez Alpizar, “Discrimination between six species of canine microfilariae by a single polymerase chain reaction,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 135, no. 3-4, pp. 303–314, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. F. Simón, L. H. Kramer, A. Román et al., “Immunopathology of Dirofilaria immitis infection,” Veterinary Research Communications, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 161–171, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. V. Valsala and R. Bhaskaran, “Dirofilariosis in dogs,” Kerala Journal of Veterinary Science, vol. 5, pp. 74–77, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  6. G. Balasubramaniam, R. Anandan, and V. S. Alwar, “On the occurrence of Dipetalonema grassi (Noe, 1907) from dogs in India,” Indian Veterinary Journal, vol. 52, pp. 513–516, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  7. P. Sarkar, D. K. Barak, and H. M. Bhattarchajee, “Pathology of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs,” Indian Veterinary Journal, vol. 53, pp. 55–57, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  8. A. Chakrabarthi and M. N. Choudhury, “Studies on canine filariasis in West Bengal,” Indian Journal of Animal Health, vol. 22, pp. 151–155, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  9. M. M. Patnaik, “On filarial nematodes in domestic animals in Orissa,” Indian Veterinary Journal, vol. 66, pp. 573–574, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  10. R. Radhika, Prevalence, clinical pathology and treatment of microfilariasis in dogs [M.S. thesis], Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, India, 1997.
  11. K. J. Ananda, Studies on microfilariosis in dogs of Mangalore and Bangalore regions in Karnataka [M.S. thesis], University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India, 2003.
  12. P. A. Megat Abd Rani, P. J. Irwin, M. Gatne, G. T. Coleman, L. M. McInnes, and R. J. Traub, “A survey of canine filarial diseases of veterinary and public health significance in India,” Parasites & Vectors, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 30, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. K. Bortharkur, K. Sarmah, T. K. Rajakhowa, M. R. Das, and S. Rahman, “Dirofilaria immitis infection in a dog,” Journal of Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 20, pp. 167–169, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  14. K. J. Ananda, P. E. D'Souza, and M. S. Jaganath, “Methods for identification of microfilaria of Dirofilaria repens and Dipetalonema reconditum,” Journal of Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 45–47, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  15. L. Sabu, K. Devada, and H. Subramanian, “Dirofilariosis in dogs and humans in Kerala,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 121, no. 5, pp. 691–693, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. Chansiri, T. Tejangkura, P. Kwaosak, N. Sarataphan, S. Phantana, and W. Sukhumsirichart, “PCR based method for identification of zoonostic Brugia malayi microfilariae in domestic cats,” Molecular and Cellular Probes, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 129–135, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. O. T. Iyengar, “Studies on the epidemiology of filariasis in Travancore,” Indian Medical Research Memoirs, vol. 30, pp. 1–179, 1938. View at Google Scholar
  18. P. K. Rajagopalan, K. N. Panicker, and S. P. Pani, “Impact of 50 years of vector control on the prevalence of Brugia malayi in Shertallai area of Kerala state,” Indian Journal of Medical Research A:Infectious Diseases, vol. 89, pp. 418–425, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Sabesan, N. P. Kumar, K. Krishnamoorthy, and K. N. Panicker, “Seasonal abundance and biting behaviour of Mansonia annulifera, M. uniformis and M. indiana and their relative role in the transmission of malayan filariasis in Shertallai (Kerala state),” Indian Journal of Medical Research A: Infectious Diseases, vol. 93, pp. 253–258, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. V. R. Ambily, U. N. Pillai, R. Arun, S. Pramod, and K. M. Jayakumar, “Detection of human filarial parasite Brugia malayi in dogs by histochemical staining and molecular techniques,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 181, no. 2–4, pp. 210–214, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. F. B. Edeson, “The epidemiology and treatment of infection due to Brugia malayi,” Bulletin of World Health Organization, vol. 27, pp. 529–541, 1962. View at Google Scholar
  22. L. Chalifoux and R. D. Hunt, “Histochemical differentiation of Dirofilaria immitis and Dipetalonema reconditum,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 158, no. 5, pp. 601–605, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. A. Acevedo, J. H. Theis, J. F. Kraus, and W. M. Longhurst, “Combination of filtration and histochemical stain for detection and differentiation of Dirofilaria immitis and Dipetalonema reconditum in the dog,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 537–540, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. E. Lee, K. H. Song, J. Liu et al., “Comparison of the acid-phosphatase staining and polymerase chain reaction for detection of Dirofilaria repens infection in dogs in Korea,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, vol. 66, no. 9, pp. 1087–1089, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. M. Ortega-Mora, M. Gomez-Bautista, and F. A. Rojo-Vazquez, “The acid phosphatase activity and morphological characteristics of Dipetalonema dracunculoides (cobbold, 1870) microfilariae,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 187–190, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. C. Redington, C. A. Montgomery, H. R. Jervis, and W. T. Hockmeyer, “Histochemical differentiation of the microfilariae of Brugia pahangi and sub periodic Brugia malayi,” Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 489–492, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. Sambrook and D. W. Russell, “Molecular cloning,” in A Laboratory Manual, pp. 6.1–6.12, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  28. N. Vakalis, G. Spanakos, E. Patsoula, and N. C. Vamvakopoulos, “Improved detection of Dirofilaria repens DNA by direct polymerase chain reaction,” Parasitology International, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 145–150, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. H. Mar, I. Yang, G. N. Chang, and A. C. Y. Fei, “Specific polymerase chain reaction for differential diagnosis of Dirofilaria immitis and Dipetalonema reconditum using primers derived from internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2),” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 243–252, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. R. Lizotte, T. Supall, F. Partono, and S. A. Williams, “A polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Brugia malayi in blood,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 314–321, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Casiraghi, C. Bazzocchi, M. Mortarino, E. Ottina, and C. Genchi, “A simple molecular method for discriminating common filarial nematodes of dogs (Canis familiaris),” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 141, no. 3-4, pp. 368–372, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Nuchprayoon, A. Junpee, Y. Poovorawan, and A. L. Scott, “Detection and differentiation of filarial parasites by universal primers and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 73, no. 5, pp. 895–900, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. R. Saseendranath, C. G. Varghese, and K. M. Jayakumar, “‘Incidence of canine dirofilariosis’ in Trichur, Kerala,” Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, vol. 6, p. 139, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  34. World Health Organization, “Epidemiologic approaches to lymphatic filariasis elimination,” in Initial Assessment, Monitoring and Certification, vol. 99, pp. 1–35, WHO, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  35. A. B. C. Laing, J. F. B. Edeson, and R. H. Wharton, “Studies on filariasis in Malaya: further experiments on the transmission of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti,” Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, vol. 55, pp. 86–92, 1961. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. Regu, R. Rajendran, M. K. S. Ali, S. M. Koya, A. C. Dhariwal, and S. Lal, “Decline of Brugian filariasis in Cherthala taluk, Alappuzha district, Kerala,” Journal of Communicable Diseases, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 209–218, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. F. Snowden and B. Hammerberg, “The lymphatic pathology of chronic Brugia pahangi infection in the dog,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 670–678, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. World Health Organization, “Lymphatic filariasis, the disease and its control,” WHO Technical Report Series 821, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  39. L. G. Jayewardene, “On two filarial parasites from dogs in Ceylon, Brugia ceylonensis n. sp. and Dipetalonema sp.inq,” Journal of Helminthology, vol. 36, pp. 269–280, 1962. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. S. Dissanaike, C. D. Jayaweera Bandara, H. H. Padmini, R. L. Ihalamulla, and T. D. S. Naotunne, “Recovery of a species of Brugia, probably B. ceylonensis, from the conjunctiva of a patient in Sri Lanka,” Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 83–86, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. Rajapakshe, W. S. R. Perera, R. L. Ihalamulla et al., “Study of dirofilariasis in a selected area in the Western Province,” Ceylon Medical Journal, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 58–61, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus