Table 5: Paraben and BP3 concentrations—medians (95th percentile) in µg/L—reported in human urine samples for children, males, and females.

Location (sampling years)PopulationAge (years) MPEPPPBPBP3Reference

Belgium (2013)Children1–114818.6 (581.1)1.1 (13.7)1.1 (96.9)0.5 (5.7)1.6 (15.2)This study
Spain (2005-2006)Boys430150.0 (—)8.1 (—)21.5 (—)1.2 (—)1.9 (—)[37]
USA (2009-2010)Children6–1141526.5 (873.0)<LOD (11.5)2.7 (114.0)<LOD (2.2)14.6 (1570.0)[38]
Denmark (2011)Children6–111433.0 (62.0)0.4 (3.7)1.7 (33.0)<LOD (1.4)1.8 (40.0)[39]
China (2012)Children9-1070— (—)— (—)— (—)— (—)0.6 (6.4)[40]
Belgium (2013)Males1–751237.7 (223.4)1.3 (41.4)0.5 (20.2)<LOD (4.9)0.9 (34.5)This study
Denmark (2006)Males18–266017.7 (2002.0)2.0 (564.0)3.6 (256.0)0.2 (67.6)— (—)[41]
USA (2009-2010)Males≥6139925.3 (727.0)<LOD (36.4)2.8 (134.0)<LOD (2.7)15.3 (610.0)[38]
Belgium (2013)Females1–8513832.4 (630.6)1.9 (83.1)3.3 (116.5)0.5 (11.1)1.7 (32.7)This study
France (2002–2006)Pregnant women191104.3 (2689.7)1.5 (38.2)10.4 (267.7)2.2 (63.6)1.7 (143.0)[42]
Spain (2004–2008)Pregnant women120191.0 (—)8.8 (—)29.8 (—)2.4 (—)3.4 (—)[37]
Japan (2007–2010)Pregnant women 11175.8 (1361.0)7.5 (593.0)20.2 (2690.0)0.6 (22.8)— (—)[43]
USA (2009-2010)Females≥61350106.0 (1230.0)2.0 (138.0)20.2 (361.0)0.3 (31.8)32.0 (3200.0)[38]
Puerto Rico (2010–2012)Pregnant women105153.0 (1590.0)— (—)36.7 (493.0)0.4 (36.4)31.3 (2150.0)[30]
China (2010–2012)Pregnant women≥18567— (—)— (—)— (—)— (—)0.1 (0.8)[44]
Danemark (2011)Mothers31–5214514.0 (275.0)0.9 (44.0)<LOD (14.0)<LOD (9.3)3.7 (312.0)[39]

—: no results/information.
maximum.
mean.