Table 6: Phthalate metabolite concentrations—median (95th percentile) in µg/L—reported in human urine samples for children and adults.

Location
(sampling years)
PopulationAge (years)N MEPMnBPMiBPMBzPMEHP5-OH-MEHP5-oxo-MEHPReference

Belgium (2013)Children 1–114835.6  (139.6)55.7  (132.7)61.8  (175.8)9.7  (52.8)3.1  (7.2)18.7  (61.7)12.3  (47.0)This study
Taiwan (2001-2002)aChildren 2–689— (—)87.9 (16455.0)21.9 (252.7)3.8 (69.4)8.1 (94.7)39.6 (1014.0)31.0 (761.0)[45]
Germany (2003–2006)Children 3–14599— (—)93.4 (310.0)88.1 (308.0)18.1 (76.2)6.7 (25.1)46.0 (164.0)36.3 (123.0)[46]
Spain (2005-2006)Children boys430324.0 (—)30.2 (—)41.9 (—)33.0 (—)6.2 (—)57.4 (—)44.6 (—)[37]
Canada (2007–2009)Children 6–11103723.6 (210.7)32.6 (168.2)— (—)21.4 (131.1)6.4 (17.8)31.6 (179.5)20.3 (106.7)[47]
USA (2009-2010)Children 6–1141533.0 (288.0)23.3 (124.0)10.9 (55.4)12.6 (87.8)1.7 (8.9)17.0 (75.1)11.1 (48.4)[38]
Denmark (2011)Children 6–1114320.0 (68.0)32.0 (99.0)54.0 (193.0)7.0 (31.0)2.0 (10.0)23.0 (89.0)12.0 (40.0)[39]
Korea (2011)Children 0–6392— (—)— (—)— (—)— (—)14.9 (58.1)80.3 (253.2)83.3 (265.5)[48]
Belgium (2011-2012)Children 6–1112523.0 (169.0)40.0 (122.0)54.0 (362.0)8.6 (27.0)2.2 (8.7)17.0 (31.0)13.0 (22.0)[49]
Belgium (2013)Males and females 12–8521334.3  (396.3)30.2  (142.2)20.1  (89.3)4.6  (26.5)2.5  (8.7)7.4  (30.6)4.9  (19.1)This study
Sweden (2001)Mothers 23–393835.0 (761.0)46.0 (198.0)16.0 (130.0)13.0 (38.0)9.0 (57.0)15.0 (126.0)11.0 (83.0)[50]
Taiwan (2001-2002)Pregnant women 31–39100— (—)52.4 (928.0)10.3 (269.0)1.2 (55.0)10.5 (218.0)21.7 (617.0)20.8 (645.0)[45]
The Netherlands
(2002–2006)
Pregnant women 18–4199117.0 (1150.0)42.8 (197.0)42.1 (249.0)7.5 (95.8)6.9 (82.8)14.0 (86.2)14.5 (104.0)[51]
Peru (2004)Pregnant women 14–4679 (—) (—) (—) (—) (—) (—) (—)[52]
Spain (2004–2008)Pregnant women 17–43120755.0 (—)27.5 (—)29.9 (—)10.5 (—)4.4 (—)17.3 (—)15.7 (—)[37]
Germany (2005)bMales and females14–60399— (—)49.6 (171.5)44.9 (182.6)7.2 (45.6)4.9 (21.7)19.2 (21.7)14.7 (56.0)[53]
Japan (2005–2008)Pregnant women31.9¥1496.0 (1067.0)48.1 (504.0)— (—)3.5 (992.0)4.4 (70.3)8.6 (89.7)9.2 (132.0)[54]
Israel (2011)Males and females20–74248— (—)27.9 (90.8)37.6 (89.0)4.3 (20.5)11.2 (49.3)30.4 (91.1)17.1 (55.5)[55]
Mexico 2007Females 32–79108 (—) (—) (—) (—) (—) (—) (—)[56]
France 2007Pregnant women27943.5 (600.7)35.7 (201.1)53.7 (274.1)10.1 (88.7)16.7 (266.6)41.9 (605.1)28.5 (427.9)[57]
Denmark (2007–2009)Males19.5¥88178.0 (1936.0)28.0 (91.0)58.0 (173.0)34.0 (164.0)4.0 (18.0)23.0 (79.0)14.0 (55.0)[58]
Canada (2007–2009)Males and females 6–49323649.1 (824.2)23.8 (120.9)— (—)12.3 (81.9)3.5 (24.9)23.4 (180.3)14.0 (113.8)[47]
USA (2009-2010)Males and females≥6274954.9 (988.0)15.9 (75.9)8.3 (41.3)6.7 (48.3)1.5 (14.1)12.9 (103.0)8.0 (55.7)[38]
China (2010)Males and females 10–4018321.5 (1330.0)61.2 (798.0)56.7 (791.0)0.6 (43.0)2.1 (207.0)11.3 (1120.0)7.0 (564.0)[59]
Korea (2011)cMales, females, and mothers20–39562— (—)— (—)— (—)— (—)9.5 (94.0)27.6 (98.2)21.1 (82.3)[48]
Denmark (2011)Mothers 31–5214529.0 (359.0)20.0 (70.0)36.0 (139.0)4.0 (22.0)1.7 (6.9)12.0 (50.0)6.1 (21.0)[39]
Belgium (2011-2012)Mothers≤4512534.0 (240.0)31.0 (119.0)33.0 (175.0)6.4 (23.0)2.3 (9.1)11.0 (51.0)7.6 (13.0)[49]
Italy (—)dMales and females 19–5815759.0 (748.6)24.2 (143.0)— (—)16.7 (102.9)3.1 (13.4)12.1 (49.4)— (—)[60]

N: number of participants.
maximum.
¥arithmetic mean.
geometric mean.
—: no results/information.
Percentile 90th.
aArithmetic mean of 2-3 and 5-6 years groups medians.
bUrine collected over eight consecutive days for each participant except one for seven days.
c12 h urine. Arithmetic mean of male, female, and mother medians.
dArithmetic mean of female and male medians.