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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 654170, 15 pages
Research Article

A Novel Phospholipase A2 (D49) from the Venom of the Crotalus oreganus abyssus (North American Grand Canyon Rattlesnake)

1Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Bioprocess Engineering, Federal University of São João Del Rei, Campus Alto Paraopeba, 34420-000 Ouro Branco, MG, Brazil
2Department of Biochemistry of Biology Institute, State University of Campinas, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil
3School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, 03828-000 São Paulo, Brazil
4Center of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Federal University of ABC, 09210-170 Santo Andre, SP, Brazil
5Center of Biomolecules Study Applied to Health, Fiocruz Rondônia, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Medicine Department, Federal University of Rondônia, 76812-245 Porto Velho, Brazil
6Proteomics Platform, Barcelona Science Park, University of Barcelona, Baldiri Reixac, 08208 Barcelona, Spain
7Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Barcelona Science Park, University of Barcelona, 08280 Barcelona, Spain
8CIBER-BBN, Barcelona Science Park, University of Barcelona, 08280 Barcelona, Spain
9Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
10School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4001, South Africa

Received 31 August 2013; Revised 25 November 2013; Accepted 6 December 2013; Published 24 February 2014

Academic Editor: Edward G. Rowan

Copyright © 2014 W. Martins et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Currently, Crotalus viridis was divided into two species: Crotalus viridis and Crotalus oreganus. The current classification divides “the old” Crotalus viridis into two new and independent species: Crotalus viridis (subspecies: viridis and nuntius) and Crotalus oreganus (subspecies: abyssus, lutosus, concolor, oreganus, helleri, cerberus, and caliginis). The analysis of a product from cDNA (E6d), derived from the gland of a specie Crotalus viridis viridis, was found to produce an acid phospholipase A2. In this study we isolated and characterized a PLA2 (D49) from Crotalus oreganus abyssus venom. Our studies show that the PLA2 produced from the cDNA of Crotalus viridis viridis (named E6d) is exactly the same PLA2 primary sequence of amino acids isolated from the venom of Crotalus oreganus abyssus. Thus, the PLA2 from E6d cDNA is actually the same PLA2 presented in the venom of Crotalus oreganus abyssus and does not correspond to the venom from Crotalus viridis viridis. These facts highlight the importance of performing more studies on subspecies of Crotalus oreganus and Crotalus viridis, since the old classification may have led to mixed results or mistaken data.