Table 1: Examples of lipase improvement using protein engineering (from 2007 to 2013).

EnzymeProtein engineering approachSubstrateOptimizationReference

Lipase B from
Candida  antarctica (CalB)
Circular permutation2-(3-Fluoro-4-phenyl-phenyl)propionic acid and others (R) = 25 
(R) = 40
Qian et al. [87]

Rhizomucor  miehei lipaseSite-directed mutagenesis p-Nitrophenyl caprylate5-fold more thermal stability
at 60°C
Han et al. [88]

Bacillus  pumilus lipaseDNA shufflingp-Nitrophenyl palmitate8-fold specific activity
9-fold half life
Akbulut et al. [78]

Rhizopus  chinensis lipaseError-prone PCR/DNA shufflingp-Nitrophenyl palmitate20°C enhancement in
thermal stability
Yu et al. [77]

Lipase A from
Pseudomonas  aeruginosa (PAL)
ISM2-Methyldecanoic acid p-nitrophenyl ester and other derivatives (S) = 1.1
(S) = 594
Reetz et al. [89]

Lipase from
Yarrowia  lipolytica (Lip2p)
Rational design2-Bromo-phenylacetic acid ethyl ester and 2-bromo-o-tolylacetic acid ethyl ester (S) = 5.5 (S) = 59
and (S) = 27 (S) = 111
Bordes et al. [75]

Lipase A from 
Candida  antarctica (CalA)
CASTing2-Phenyl propanoicacid p-nitrophenylester (S) = 20
(R) = 276
Engström et al. [74]