(a) Fluorescence (FL) measured in relative fluorescence units (RFU) versus aptamer concentration. Left panel: the selective binding of two designed DNA aptamers with liposomes containing PS. Right panel: the low, nonspecific binding of the designed DNA aptamer with liposomes containing only PC. The DNA concentration shown here is the actual concentration used in lipids/cholesterol in HEPES buffer. PS-aptamer I/SIAp1: AAAAGA, PS-aptamer II/SIAp4: AAAGAC [11, 38]. The data clearly show that PS-aptamer II/SIApIV binds to PS better than PS-aptamer I. This figure is taken with due permission from . (b) The dissociation constant of SIAp4. Fluorescence versus aptamer (SIAp3: TAAAGA and SIAp4) concentrations. Only PS binding is measured. This figure is taken from .