BioMed Research International / 2014 / Article / Fig 7

Review Article

Aptamers as Both Drugs and Drug-Carriers

Figure 7

PS externalization [44, 45] in the apoptotic cell membrane. Early in the apoptotic process there is a rapid redistribution and exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the cell surface mediated by the enzyme scramblase. Due to perhaps specific lipid properties, for example, especially intrinsic curvature, the PS concentration varies between inner and outer leaflets on lipid monolayers in a membrane. PS is normally restricted to the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer by an ATPdependent enzyme called flippase (translocase). Flippase, in concert with a second ATP-dependent enzyme, floppase, that pumps cationic phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin to the cell surface, maintains an asymmetric distribution of different phospholipids between the inner and outer leaflets of the plasma membrane. This figure is redrawn [46] in light of the model diagram and description of the general apoptosis process presented in [44, 45].