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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 704678, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/704678
Research Article

Increased DJ-1 in Urine Exosome of Korean Males with Parkinson’s Disease

1InAm Neuroscience Research Center, Sanbon Medical Center, College of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Sanbon-dong, Gunpo-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea
2Department of Molecular and Life Sciences, Hanyang University, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea
3Department of Neurology, Sanbon Medical Center, College of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Sanbon-dong, Gunpo-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea

Received 13 June 2014; Revised 12 August 2014; Accepted 27 August 2014; Published 13 November 2014

Academic Editor: Alessandro Stefani

Copyright © 2014 Dong Hwan Ho et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a difficult disease to diagnose although it is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Recent studies show that exosome isolated from urine contains LRRK2 or DJ-1, proteins whose mutations cause PD. To investigate a potential use for urine exosomes as a tool for PD diagnosis, we compared levels of LRRK2, α-synuclein, and DJ-1 in urine exosomes isolated from Korean PD patients and non-PD controls. LRRK2 and DJ-1, but not α-synuclein, were detected in the urine exosome samples, as reported previously. We initially could not detect any significant difference in these protein levels between the patient and the control groups. However, when age, disease duration, L-dopa daily dose, and gender were considered as analytical parameters, LRRK2 and DJ-1 protein levels showed clear gender-dependent differences. In addition, DJ-1 level was significantly higher (1.7-fold) in male patients with PD than that in male non-PD controls and increased in an age-dependent manner in male patients with PD. Our observation might provide a clue to lead to a novel biomarker for PD diagnosis, at least in males.