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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 707089, 8 pages
Research Article

Efficacy of a Hypotonic Treatment for Peritoneal Dissemination from Gastric Cancer Cells: An In Vivo Evaluation

1Division of Digestive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
2Departments of Molecular Cell Physiology and Bio-Ionomics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
3Japan Institute for Food Education and Health, St. Agnes’ University, Kyoto 602-8013, Japan

Received 13 May 2014; Accepted 13 June 2014; Published 2 July 2014

Academic Editor: Akio Tomoda

Copyright © 2014 Atsushi Shiozaki et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of a hypotonic treatment for peritoneal dissemination from gastric cancer cells using an in vivo model. We firstly evaluated the toxicity of a peritoneal injection of distilled water (DW) (2 mL for 3 days) in mice. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations revealed that the peritoneal injection of DW did not severely damage the abdominal organs of these mice. MKN45 gastric cancer cells preincubated with NaCl buffer or DW for 20 minutes in vitro were then intraperitoneally injected into nude mice, and the development of dissemination nodules was analyzed. The total number, weight, and volume of the dissemination nodules were significantly decreased by the DW preincubation. We then determined whether the peritoneal injection of DW inhibited the establishment of peritoneal dissemination. After a peritoneal injection of MKN45 cells into nude mice, NaCl buffer or DW was injected into the abdominal cavity for 3 days. The total volume of dissemination nodules was significantly lower in DW-injected mice than in NaCl-injected mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated the safeness of a peritoneal injection of DW. Furthermore, the development of dissemination nodules from gastric cancer cells was prevented by a preincubation with or peritoneal injection of DW.