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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 723060, 18 pages
Review Article

Perspectives on Molecular Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Strategies in Traumatic Brain Injury

1Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Biological Sciences Centre, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil
2Faculty of Medicine, University of South Santa Catarina (Unisul), 88137-270 Palhoça, SC, Brazil
3Neurosurgery Service, São José Regional Hospital (HRSJ-HMG), 88103-901 São José, SC, Brazil
4Applied Neurosciences Centre (CeNAp) and Department of Medical Clinics, University Hospital, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

Received 20 August 2013; Revised 4 December 2013; Accepted 9 December 2013; Published 13 February 2014

Academic Editor: Fausto Catena

Copyright © 2014 André Mendes Arent et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently associated with abnormal blood-brain barrier function, resulting in the release of factors that can be used as molecular biomarkers of TBI, among them GFAP, UCH-L1, S100B, and NSE. Although many experimental studies have been conducted, clinical consolidation of these biomarkers is still needed to increase the predictive power and reduce the poor outcome of TBI. Interestingly, several of these TBI biomarkers are oxidatively modified to carbonyl groups, indicating that markers of oxidative stress could be of predictive value for the selection of therapeutic strategies. Some drugs such as corticosteroids and progesterone have already been investigated in TBI neuroprotection but failed to demonstrate clinical applicability in advanced phases of the studies. Dietary antioxidants, such as curcumin, resveratrol, and sulforaphane, have been shown to attenuate TBI-induced damage in preclinical studies. These dietary antioxidants can increase antioxidant defenses via transcriptional activation of NRF2 and are also known as carbonyl scavengers, two potential mechanisms for neuroprotection. This paper reviews the relevance of redox biology in TBI, highlighting perspectives for future studies.