Table 2: Lifestyle and environmental determinants (“anthropogens”) for chronic disease. Numbers refer to chronic disease categories (from Table 1) for which there is supporting evidence referred to in the text.

DeterminantsDecreases riskIncreases riskModerators

Nutrition
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Fruit/vegetables
Dietary fibre
Whole grains
Food variety
Seafood
Healthy eating patterns
High total energy
High energy density
Excess processed foods
High GI foods
Sat./trans fats
Sugars
Salt
Excessive alcohol
Sugared soft drinks
Processed/red meat
Binge eating/drinking
Social/holiday eating
“Restrained” eating
Feasting
Culture
Habits

(In)Activity  
1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9
Aerobic exercise
Resistance exercise
Stretching
Stability
Leisure activity
Incidental activity
Sitting/sedentary work
Overexercise
Fear of crime
Fatigue/laziness
Discomfort/injury/
Early experiences
Energy-saving devices
Obesity
Habits

Stress, anxiety, and depression
1, 3, 4, 9
Exercise/fitness
Healthy nutrition
Perceived control
Self-efficacy
Coping skills
Meaning
Overload
“Learned helplessness”
Early trauma
Boredom
Caffeine/drug use
Peer/social/pressure
Uncontrollable thoughts
Worry
Fear of the unknown
Obesity

Technology-induced-pathology
7, 10
Motor vehicle use
Machinery
TV/small screens
Repetitive actions
Noise pollution
Processed foods
Weapons of war
Peer/social pressure
Legislation/regulation
Habits

Inadequate sleep
1, 3, 6, 10
REM sleep
Bed-time
Hypersomnia
Nutrition
Exercise/fitness
Stress
Entertainment
Sleep disorders
Overheating
Interactive media
Alcohol/drugs
Activity before sleep
Stress
Anxiety/depression
Obesity
habits

Environment
2, 3, 6, 9, 10
Political/economic
structure
Recreational space
“Green” exposure
Infrastructure for walking and cycling
Plant-based
nutrition
Passive influences
Second-hand smoke
Particle pollution
Endocrine disrupting
Chemicals (EDCs)
Home chemicals
Drug-immunity (e.g., antibiotics)
Social proof
“Tipping point”
Social/peer pressure
Cultural influences
Habit

Occupation
1, 2, 8, 10
Social justice
Work equality
Security of employment
Work stress
Shift-work
Hazard exposure
Conflict
Peer pressure
Bullying

Drugs, smoking, and alcohol
1–10
Appropriate medicationRecreational drugs
Cigarette smoking
Alcohol use
Iatrogenesis
Stress, anxiety, and depression
Peer/social pressure
Addiction
Binge drinking
Habit

Over- and underexposure
1, 2, 3
Sunlight
light
stimulation
Sunlight (excess)
Sunlight (inadequate)
Low humidity/
asbestos
Radiation
Peer/social pressure
Cultural influences
Habit

Relationships
1, 3, 6
Companionship
Peer support
Maternal support in childhood
“Love”
Interpersonal conflict
Loneliness
Lack of support
Peer pressure
Early experience

Social factors
1–10
Trust
Income security
Market regulation
SE status
Education
Inequality
Poverty
Deregulated markets
Stress
Bullying
Cognitive processes
Peer/social pressure