Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 736259, 8 pages
Research Article

First Record of Isolation and Characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus lugdunensis from Clinical Samples in Iraq

Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Babylon University, Hilla, Babylon Governorate, Iraq

Received 7 February 2014; Revised 28 June 2014; Accepted 28 June 2014; Published 13 July 2014

Academic Editor: Paul M. Tulkens

Copyright © 2014 Alaa H. Al-Charrakh and Mohammed H. Obayes. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. L Frank, J. L. del Pozo, and R. Patel, “From clinical microbiology to infection pathogenesis: how daring to be different works for Staphylococcus lugdunensis,” Clinical Microbiology Review, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 111–133, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  2. J. Freney, Y. Brun, M. Bes et al., “Staphylococcus lugdunensis sp. nov. and Staphylococcus schleiferi sp. nov. , two species from human clinical specimens,” International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 168–172, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  3. R. M. Jones, M. A. Jackson, C. Ong, and G. K. Lofland, “Endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 265–268, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  4. N. Kaabia, D. Scauarda, G. Lena et al., “Molecular identification of Staphylococcus lugdunensis in a patient with meningitis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 1824–1825, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  5. A. Zinkernagel, M. Zinkernagel, M. Elzi et al., “Significance of Staphylococcus lugdunensis: report of 28 cases and review of the literature,” Infection, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 314–321, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  6. N. Noguchi, O. Takashi, and S. Taisei, “Association of tannase-producing Staphylococcus lugdunensis with colon cancer and characterization of a novel tannase gene,” Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 346–351, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  7. S. Fujita, Y. Senda, T. Iwagami et al., “Rapid identification of staphylococcal strains from positive-testing blood culture bottles by internal transcribed spacer PCR followed by microchip gel electrophoresis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 1149–1157, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. W. S. Tee, S. Y. Soh, and R. Lin, “Staphylococcus lugdunensis carrying the mecA gene causes catheter-associated blood stream infection in premature neonate,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 519–520, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  9. J. Mitchell, A. Tristan, and T. J. Foster, “Characterization of the fibrinogen binding surface protein Fbl of Staphylococcus lugdunensis,” Microbiology, vol. 150, no. 11, pp. 3831–3841, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. I. Anguera, A. Del Rio, J. M. Miro et al., “Staphylococcus lugdunensis infective endocarditis: description of 10 cases and analysis of native valve, prosthetic valve, and pacemaker lead endocarditis clinical profiles,” Heart, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 1–10, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  11. B. A. Forbes, F. S. Daniel, and S. W. Alice, Bailey and Scott Diagnostic Microbiology, Mosby, Elsevier, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 12th edition, 2007.
  12. N. Noguchi, G. Keiko, R. Tokihiro et al., “Using the tannase gene to rapidly and simply identify Staphylococcus lugdunensis,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 120–123, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, “Performance standards for Antimicrobial susceptibility testing; twenty-second informational supplement,” Approved Standard M100-S20, CLSI, Wayne, Pa, USA, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  14. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically, Approved standard M7-A6, NCCLS, Wayne, Pa, USA, 6th edition, 2003.
  15. M. P. Eliezer, L. O. Fred, P. S. Ricardo et al., “Detection of Staphylococcus lugdunensis by a new species-species PCR based on the fbl gene,” FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 295–298, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  16. J. M. William, J. S. Blevins, K. Beenken et al., “Multiplex PCR protocol for the diagnosis of Staphylococcal infection,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 3332–3338, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. T. Yi-Wei, H. Jian, A. Melinda et al., “Staphylococcus pseudolugdunensis sp. nov., a pyrrolidonyl arylamidase/ornithine decarboxylase-positive bacterium isolated from blood cultures,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 351–359, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  18. E. Bouza, O. Cuevas, and E. Cercenado, “Evolution of the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus spp. in Spain: five nationwide prevalence studies, 1986 to 2002,” Journal of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 4240–4245, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. A. H. Al-Fuadi, Phenotypic and genotypic (mec A gene) of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in Dewaniya City, College of medicine, Babylon University, 2010.
  20. F. Koksal, H. Yasar, and M. Samasti, “Antibiotic resistance patterns of coagulase-negative staphylococcus strains isolated from blood cultures of septicemic patients in Turkey,” Microbiology Research, vol. 164, no. 4, pp. 404–410, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. E. Carretto, V. Emmi, D. Barbarini et al., “Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in an Italian intensive care unit: clinical and therapeutical remarks,” Journal of Chemotherapy, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 145–150, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  22. T. Y. Tan, S. Y. Ng, and J. He, “Microbiological characteristics, presumptive identification and antibiotic susceptibilities of Staphylococcus lugdunensis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 2393–2395, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  23. M. C. Booth, L. M. Pence, P. Mahasreshti et al., “Clonal associations among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from various sites of infection,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 345–352, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. M. Mateo, M. Juan-Ramón, A. Lorenzo et al., “Genotypic versus phenotypic characterization, with respect to susceptibility and identification, of 17 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus lugdunensis,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 287–291, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. O. A. Ezekiel and L. Adebayo, “Species distribution and antibiotic resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci colonizing the gastrointestinal tract of children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 35–43, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  26. A. S. Prince, “Staphylococcal infections,” in Krugman's Infectious Diseases of Children, S. L. Kats, A. A. Gershon, and P. J. Hoyez, Eds., Mosby, Harcourt Sciences, 10th edition, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  27. A. Aggarwal, S. Kanna, and U. Arova, “Characterization biotyping antibiogram and klebocin typing of Klebsiella,” Indian Journal of Medicine, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 68–70, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  28. E. Goldman and H. G. Lorrence, Practical Handbook of Microbiology, Taylor and Francis Group, 2nd edition, 2009.
  29. L. Katz and G. W. Ashley, “Translation and protein synthesis: macrolides,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 499–527, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  30. C. Hellbacher, E. Tornqvist, and B. Soderquist, “Staphylococcus lugdunensis: clinical spectrum, antibiotic susceptibility, and phenotypic and genotypic patterns of 39 isolates,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 43–49, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  31. I. Bourgeois, M. Pestel-Caron, J.-F. Lemeland, J.-L. Pons, and F. Caron, “Tolerance to the glycopeptides vancomycin and teicoplanin in coagulase-negative staphylococci,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 740–743, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. S. Evers and P. Courvalin, “Regulation of VanB-type vancomycin resistance gene expression by the VanSB-VanRB two-component regulatory system in Enterococcus faecalis V583,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 178, no. 5, pp. 1302–1309, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  33. T. E. Herchline and L. W. Ayers, “Occurrence of Staphylococcus lugdunensis in consecutive clinical cultures and relationship of isolation to infection,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 419–421, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  34. N. Papapetropoulos, M. Papapetropoulou, and A. Vantarakis, “Abscesses and wound infections due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis: report of 16 cases,” Infection, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 525–528, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. A. H. Al-Charrakh, S. Y. Yousif, and H. S. Al-Janabi, “"Occurrence and detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in Klebsiella isolates in Hilla , Iraq,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 657–665, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  36. K. Becker, I. Pagnier, B. Schuhen et al., “Does nasal cocolonization by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains occur frequently enough to represent a risk of false-positive methicillin-resistant S. aureus determinations by molecular methods,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 229–231, 2006. View at Google Scholar