Table 6: Antibacterial and antifungal capacities of precarthamin isolated from C. tinctorius flowers during flowering.

Flowering stageBacterial strainsYeast strains

ATCC 14759
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus E. coli ATCC 25218Staphylococcus aureus
ATCC 25923
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
ATCC 27853
IZMICIZMICIZMICIZMICIZMICIZMIC

Bu11.26 ± 0.55a168 ± 0.23cndnd13.00 ± 0.55c156 ± 0.28bndnd12.00 ± 0.89c159.5 ± 0.96c7.11 ± 0.37c240 ± 0.24a
F8.58 ± 0.74d201 ± 0.54a10.08 ± 0.55c166 ± 0.74a13.50 ± 0.69c159 ± 0.11andnd10.39 ± 0.22d167 ± 0.55a8.99 ± 0.07b235 ± 0.33b
FF9.89 ± 0.03c199 ± 0.11b12.30 ± 0.56b160 ± 0.0b15.23 ± 0.57b152 ± 0.34cndnd13.37 ± 0.83b160.25 ± 0.6310.20 ± 0.78a230 ± 0.14d
Se10.05 ± 0.88b165 ± 0.14d13.20 ± 0.23a158 ± 0.20b16.89 ± 1.31a150 ± 0.18dndnd15.93 ± 0.27a153 ± 0.74d9.03 ± 0.23b233 ± 0.22c

Synthetic standards

Gentamicin2225283523
Nystatin25

Bu: bud formation, F: flower formation, FF: full flowering, and Se: seed formation. nd: not detected. Data are reported as means ± SD ( ) and compared to control (C). ANOVA is followed by Duncan multiple range test ( ). Values in the same column with different superscripts (a–d) are significantly different at .