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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 785039, 22 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/785039
Review Article

A Survey of FDG- and Amyloid-PET Imaging in Dementia and GRADE Analysis

1Nuclear Medicine Department, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, San Raffaele Hospital and Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy
2Nuclear Medicine Department, University of Rome “Tor Vergata” and IRCCS Neuromed, 86077 Pozzilli, Italy
3Department of Medical and Experimental Sciences, Unit of Neurology, Brescia University, 25123 Brescia, Italy
4Department of Neuroscience Ophthalmology and Genetics, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
5IBFM-CNR, Via F.lli Cervi 93, Segrate, 20090 Milan, Italy
6IRCCS Centro San Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli, and Memory Clinic and LANVIE, Laboratory of Neuroimaging of Aging, University Hospitals and University of Geneva, 1225 Geneva, Switzerland
7University of Rome Tor Vergata and IRCSS S. Lucia, 00142 Rome, Italy

Received 10 October 2013; Accepted 29 January 2014; Published 19 March 2014

Academic Editor: Yong He

Copyright © 2014 Perani Daniela et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

PET based tools can improve the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and differential diagnosis of dementia. The importance of identifying individuals at risk of developing dementia among people with subjective cognitive complaints or mild cognitive impairment has clinical, social, and therapeutic implications. Within the two major classes of AD biomarkers currently identified, that is, markers of pathology and neurodegeneration, amyloid- and FDG-PET imaging represent decisive tools for their measurement. As a consequence, the PET tools have been recognized to be of crucial value in the recent guidelines for the early diagnosis of AD and other dementia conditions. The references based recommendations, however, include large PET imaging literature based on visual methods that greatly reduces sensitivity and specificity and lacks a clear cut-off between normal and pathological findings. PET imaging can be assessed using parametric or voxel-wise analyses by comparing the subject’s scan with a normative data set, significantly increasing the diagnostic accuracy. This paper is a survey of the relevant literature on FDG and amyloid-PET imaging aimed at providing the value of quantification for the early and differential diagnosis of AD. This allowed a meta-analysis and GRADE analysis revealing high values for PET imaging that might be useful in considering recommendations.