Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 786480, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/786480
Research Article

Association between Giardia duodenalis and Coinfection with Other Diarrhea-Causing Pathogens in India

1Division of Parasitology, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, P-33 CIT Road, Scheme XM, Beliaghata, Kolkata, West Bengal 700010, India
2Division of Data Management, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, P-33 CIT Road, Scheme XM, Beliaghata, Kolkata, West Bengal 700010, India
3Department of Parasitology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan

Received 16 December 2013; Revised 17 May 2014; Accepted 20 May 2014; Published 9 June 2014

Academic Editor: Moreno Bondi

Copyright © 2014 Avik K. Mukherjee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. G. Fraser and K. R. Cooke, “Endemic giardiasis and municipal water supply,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 760–762, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. Odoi, S. W. Martin, P. Michel, J. Holt, D. Middleton, and J. Wilson, “Determinants of the geographical distribution of endemic giardiasis in Ontario, Canada: a spatial modelling approach,” Epidemiology and Infection, vol. 132, no. 5, pp. 967–976, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. D. Adam, “The Giardia lamblia genome,” International Journal for Parasitology, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 475–484, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. GBD, Summary Tables, Health Statistics and Informatics Department, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2004, http://www.who.int/evidence/bod.
  5. D. B. Huang and A. C. White, “An updated review on Cryptosporidium and Giardia,” Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 291–314, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. B. Nair, T. Ramamurthy, M. K. Bhattacharya et al., “Emerging trends in the etiology of enteric pathogens as evidenced from an active surveillance of hospitalized diarrhoeal patients in Kolkata, India,” Gut Pathogens, vol. 2, no. 1, article 4, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. K. Mukherjee, P. Chowdhury, M. K. Bhattacharya, M. Ghosh, K. Rajendran, and S. Ganguly, “Hospital-based surveillance of enteric parasites in Kolkata,” BMC Research Notes, vol. 2, article 110, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. “Diagnostic procedures for stool specimens,” http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/DiagnosticProcedures.htm.
  9. A. V. Allen and D. S. Ridley, “Further observations on the formol-ether concentration technique for faecal parasites,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 545–546, 1970. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. A. Rochelle, R. de Leon, M. H. Stewart, and R. L. Wolfe, “Comparison of primers and optimization of PCR conditions for detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in water,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 106–114, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. G. Dean, T. G. Arner, G. G. Sunki et al., Epi Info, A Database and Statistics Program for Public Health Professionals, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 2011.
  12. S. Menard, “Coefficients of determination for multiple logistic regression analysis,” The American Statistician, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 17–24, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. W. Hosmer Jr. and S. Lemeshow, Applied Logistic Regression, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2000.
  14. S. N. Goodman, “Toward evidence-based medical statistics. 1: the P value fallacy,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 130, no. 12, pp. 995–1004, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. R. Frerichs, “History, maps and the internet: UCLA's John Snow site,” Bulletin of the Society of Cartographers, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 3–7, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Plutzer, A. Törökné, Z. Szénási, I. Kucsera, K. Farkas, and P. Karanis, “Detection and genotype analysis of Giardia duodenalis from asymptomatic Hungarian inhabitants and comparative findings in three distinct locations,” Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 19–26, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  17. M. Ish-Horowicz, S. H. Korman, M. Shapiro et al., “Asymptomatic giardiasis in children,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 773–779, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Rajendran, A. Sumi, M. K. Bhattachariya et al., “Influence of relative humidity in Vibrio cholerae infection: a time series model,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 138–145, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus