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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 787989, 10 pages
Research Article

Optimization of Milk-Based Medium for Efficient Cultivation of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 Using Face-Centered Central Composite-Response Surface Methodology

1Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sec. 2, 40150 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
2Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Putra Infoport, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, 40150 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
3Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 13 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 15 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
5Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
6The School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kompleks Pengajian Jejawi 3, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia

Received 25 July 2013; Accepted 13 November 2013; Published 12 January 2014

Academic Editor: Filippo Canducci

Copyright © 2014 Khalilah Abdul Khalil et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study was undertaken to optimize skim milk and yeast extract concentration as a cultivation medium for optimal Bifidobacteria pseudocatenulatum G4 (G4) biomass and β-galactosidase production as well as lactose and free amino nitrogen (FAN) balance after cultivation period. Optimization process in this study involved four steps: screening for significant factors using 23 full factorial design, steepest ascent, optimization using FCCD-RSM, and verification. From screening steps, skim milk and yeast extract showed significant influence on the biomass production and, based on the steepest ascent step, middle points of skim milk (6% wt/vol) and yeast extract (1.89% wt/vol) were obtained. A polynomial regression model in FCCD-RSM revealed that both factors were found significant and the strongest influence was given by skim milk concentration. Optimum concentrations of skim milk and yeast extract for maximum biomass G4 and β-galactosidase production meanwhile low in lactose and FAN balance after cultivation period were 5.89% (wt/vol) and 2.31% (wt/vol), respectively. The validation experiments showed that the predicted and experimental values are not significantly different, indicating that the FCCD-RSM model developed is sufficient to describe the cultivation process of G4 using skim-milk-based medium with the addition of yeast extract.