Table 8: Details of pharmacological/biological activities reported from Foeniculum vulgare.

ActivityPlant part usedDosage form/type of extractConcentration/dosagesTested living system/organ/cell/type of study ResultsReferences

200 mg/kg: oral administrationInvivo, male ICR mice, BALB/c mice, and Sprague-Dawley ratsInhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammatory diseases and type IV allergic reactions[79]

HepatoprotectiveSeedEssential oil0.4 mL/kgInvivo, carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury model in male Sprague-Dawley ratsDecreases the level of serum enzymes, namely, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin[9]

HypoglycaemicSeedEssential oil30 mg/kg Invivo, streptozotocin induced diabetic ratsIngestion of essential oil to diabetic rats corrected the hyperglycemia and the activity of serum glutathione peroxidase and also improved the pathological changes noticed in their kidney and pancreas[12]

AntihirsutismSeedFennel extractCreams containing 1%, 2% of fennel extract and placebo45 female patients aged 16–53 years with mild to moderate forms of idiopathic hirsutism Cream containing 2% fennel is better than the cream containing 1% fennel and these two were more potent than placebo[78]

200  g/mLNormal human blood lymphocyteProvides more cytoprotection for normal human lymphocytes as compared with standard sample, that is, doxorubicin[11]

25 to 200  g/mLB16F10 melanoma cell line70% methanolic extract shows good antitumour activity at the concentration of 200  g/mL.[11]

Antioxidant SeedEthanol and water extract100  g of ethanol and water extractInvitro, not stated77.5% and 99.1% inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, respectively.[10]

OestrogenicSeedAcetone extractNot statedInvivo, female ratsWeight of mammary glands increases also increases the weight of oviduct, endometrium, myometrium, cervix, and vagina[8]

Vascular effectsLeafAqueous extracts0.1 to 0.4 mL injectionInvivo, pentobarbital-anaesthetised Sprague-Dawley ratsSignificant dose-related reduction in arterial blood pressure, without affecting the heart rate or respiratory rate[75]

Antistress FruitAqueous extracts50, 100 and 200 mg/kg Invivo, scopolamine-induced amnesic ratsSignificant inhibition of the stress induced biochemical changes in vanillyl mandelic acid and ascorbic acid.[13]

Memory-enhancingFruitAqueous extracts50, 100, and 200 mg/kgInvivo, scopolamine-induced amnesic ratsThe significant reduction is achieved in amnesia in extract-treated groups as compared with the control group of animals[13]

Chemopreventive SeedTest diet of fennel4% and 6% test diets of FennelIn-vivo, DMBA-induced skin and B(a)P-induced forestomach papillomagenesis in Swiss albino miceSignificant reduction in the skin and the forestomach tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity as compared to the control group of animal[85]

OculohypotensiveSeedAqueous extract0.3%, 0.6%, and 1.2% (w/v)Invivo, rabbits It exhibits 17.49, 21.16, and 22.03% reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) in normotensive rabbits at 0.3%, 0.6%, and 1.2% (w/v) concentrations of extract [84]

Anticarcinogenic SeedMethanolic extract100 mg/kgInvivo, Swiss albino miceSignificant increase in malondialdehyde levels and the significant decrease in catalase activity and glutathione content in liver and tumor tissue in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma[140]

AntiagingSeedFennel extractFormulation containing 4% extractMale volunteers with mean age of 48 years Formulation showed significant effects on skin moisture and transepidermal water loss[50]

ApoptoticFruitEthanol extract 100 to 300  g/mLNine human cell lines: ML-1, J-45.01, HL-60, 1301, U-266B1, WICL, C-8166, EOL, and H-9—human T cellHighest mortality in Trypan blue test for J45 cell line, 4% of viable cells and for C8166 cell line, 100% of mortality[86]

AntiulcerogenicAerial partsAqueous extract75, 150, 300 mg/kgInvivo, ethanol induced gastric lesions in Sprague-Dawley ratsPretreatment with extracts significantly reduced ethanol induced gastric damage.[81]

CytotoxicRoot (ground part)Dichloromethane and methanol (1 : 1) extract 700  g/mLMurine fibrosarcoma L929sA cells and on the human breast cancer cells MDA-MB231 and MCF7Cytotoxic activity may act via inhibition of the NFkB pathway.[82]

Antimycobacterial Aerial partsChloroform, hexane, methanol, and aqueous extracts 100 to 200  g/mLInvitro, M. tuberculosis H37Rv (27294)Hexane extract is active against pan sensitive strain of M. tuberculosis H37RV[141]