Table 9: Antibacterial, antimycobacterial, antifungal, and antiviral studies carried out on Foeniculum vulgare.

Sr. numberPart usedaType of extractActive strainsbMethod Reference standardEffective concentrationReference

1SDEssential oil S.a., Enterococcus sp., P.a., E.c., and Salmonella sp.Filter paper disc diffusion method 0.5 Mac Farland’s Standard (1.5 108 CFU/mL)10  L/disk [142]

2FTEssential oilE.c., B.m.,and 27
phytopathogenic bacterial species
Agar diffusion method Rifampicin1.6 mg/mL [143]

3APAqueous, ethanol and ethyl-acetate extractsA.r.t., Er.c., P.f.,and P.g. Filter paper disc diffusion methodChloramphenicol, streptomycin, and tetracycline15 mg per disc. [91]

4SDEssential oilE.a., S.t., S.a., St.e., E.c., P.a.,and C.a. Filter paper disc diffusion methodAmoxicillin and cefazolin15  L/disk[144]

5FL, FT Essential oilA.a., F.o., and R.s. Filter paper disc diffusion methodNS10 and 40 ppm[95]

6FL, LF, TWEssential oilBacilli sp., P.a., Acinetobacter sp., and A.f. Agar diffusion method Fleroxacin30, 25, 20, 15 and 10  L per well [145]

7SD, ST, LF, RTEssential oilS.a., B.s., E.c., P.a., C.a., C.t., M.s., M.c., and M.x. Agar dilution methodNSNM[146]

8SDEssential oilE.c., B.s., A.n., F.s.,and Rh.s. Filter paper disc diffusion methodAmoxycillin and flumequine300  g/disc [96]

9FTEssential oil and ethanolic and methanolic extractsB.c., B.m., B.p., B.s., E.c., K.p., M.l., P.p., P.s., and C.a. Filter paper disc diffusion methodCefoperazone, sulbactam, ofloxacin, and netilmicin30 mg/mL[92]

10SDAqueous/organic extractsE.f., S.a., E.c., K.p., P.a., Sa.t., S.t., and S.f. Agar well and disc diffusion methodChloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ampicillinNM[3]

11SDEssential oilE.c., P.a., S.a., B.s., A.n., and C.a. Filter paper disc diffusion techniqueAmpicillin and miconazole nitrate10  L/disk [113]

12SDEthanol, methanol, and aqueous extractsE.c., K.p., P.v., E.a., Sa.t., B.c.,and S.a. Agar well and disc diffusion methodStreptomycinNM[4]

13SDEssential oilE.c., P.a., S.a., C.a.,and A.n. Cylinder-plate diffusion methodNS0.25 to 2.0%[147]

14FTEssential oilsS.a., B.c., P.a., E.c.,and C.a. Disc paper and broth microdilution methodsNSNM[148]

15SDMethanol, ethanol, diethyl ether, and hexane extractE.c., Sa.t., B.c., S.a., C.a.,and As.f. Filter paper disc diffusion techniqueNS7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 20  g/disk[23]

16LF, FLCrude, chloroform, and methanol extractE.c. and S.a. Filter paper disc diffusion methodNSNM[93]

17FTEssential oil HSV-1 and PI-3Using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell linesAcyclovir 0.025 to 0.8  g/mL[5]

18LFEssential oilS.a., E.c., K.p., P.a., S.e., C.a. and P.m., A.n.,and F.o. Filter paper disc diffusion methodGentamicin, amoxicillin, and nystatin5  L/disk[94]

19ST, LFHexane extract M.t. 96-well sterile microtiter plate assayNS200  g/mL[63]

20SDEssential oilS.a., E.c., K.p.,and P.a. Agar well diffusion method Imipenem50  L/well[149]

21SDEssential oilS.a., E.c., S.c.,and St.f. Filter paper disc diffusion methodAmoxicillin10, 50, 100  L/mL [150]

22SDEssential oilS.a., B.s., B.m., B.c., S.l., S.h., Sa.t., S.d., S.s., Sh.s., S.b., E.c.,and P.a. Filter paper disc diffusion methodStreptomycin1  g/mL[151]

23FTEssential oilC.a. Agar well and filter paper disc diffusion method Fluconazole and nystatin 25  L/well and 15  L/disc[152]

24SDMethanolic extract E.c., P.a., S.a., and B.p. Agar diffusion method Chloramphenicol and ampicillinNM[7]

25SDAqueous and alcoholic
extracts
A.a., M.r.,and A.f. Agar well diffusion method NSNM[98]

AP: aerial part, FL: flower, FT: fruit, LF: leaf, RT: root, SD: seed, ST: stem, and TW: twig.
.: Alternaria alternate, A.f.: Alcaligenes faecalis, As.f.: Aspergillus flavus, A.n.: Aspergillus niger, A.r.t.: Agrobacterium radiobacter pv. tumefaciens, B.c.: Bacillus cereus, B.m.: Bacillus megaterium, B.p.: Bacillus pumilus, B.s.: Bacillus subtilis, C.a.: Candida albicans, C.t.: Candida tropicalis, E.a.: Enterobacter aerogenes, Er.c.: Erwinia carotovora, E.c.: Escherichia coli, E.f.: Enterococcus faecalis, F.o.: Fusarium oxysporum, F.s.: Fusarium solani, K.p.: Klebsiella pneumonia, M.c.: Mycobacterium chelonae, M.l.: Micrococcus luteus, M.r.: Mucor rouxii, M.s.: Mycobacterium smegmatis, M.t.: Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ATCC 27294, M.x.: Mycobacterium xenopi, P.a.: Pseudomona aeruginosa, P.f.: Pseudomonas fluorescens, P.g.: Pseudomonas glycinea, P.m.: Phytopathogenic molds, P.p.: Pseudomonas putida, P.s.: Pseudomonas syringae, P.v.: Proteus vulgaris, R.s.: Rhizoctonia solani, Rh.s.: Rhizopus solani, S.a.: Staphylococcus aureus, S.b.: Shigella boydii, S.c.: Staphylococcus coagulase, S.d.: Shigella dysenteriae, S.e.: Salmonella enteritidis, S.e.: Staphylococcus epidermidis, S.f.: Shigella flexneri, St.f.: Streptococcus faecalis, S.h.: Streptococcus haemolyticus, S.l.: Sarcina lutea, S.s.: Shigella shiga, S.t.: Salmonella typhimurium, Sa.t.: Salmonella typhi, and Sh.s.: Shigella sonnei. HSV-1: herpes simplex virus 1 as a representative of DNA viruses and PI-3: parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3) as representative of RNA viruses.
NS: no reference standard employed and NM: not mentioned.