Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 853159, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/853159
Research Article

Anatomic Changes in the Macroscopic Morphology and Microarchitecture of Denervated Long Bone Tissue after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

1Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
2Laboratory of Bioengineering, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Pedreira de Freitas, Casa 1, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

Received 19 February 2014; Revised 23 June 2014; Accepted 24 June 2014; Published 20 July 2014

Academic Editor: Shiro Imagama

Copyright © 2014 Ariane Zamarioli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Dudley-Javoroski and R. K. Shields, “Longitudinal changes in femur bone mineral density after spinal cord injury: effects of slice placement and peel method,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 985–995, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. R. Morse, R. A. Battaglino, K. L. Stolzmann et al., “Osteoporotic fractures and hospitalization risk in chronic spinal cord injury,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 385–392, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. Eser, A. Frotzler, Y. Zehnder et al., “Relationship between the duration of paralysis and bone structure: a pQCT study of spinal cord injured individuals,” Bone, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 869–880, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. S. Krause, R. E. Carter, E. E. Pickelsimer, and D. Wilson, “A prospective study of health and risk of mortality after spinal cord injury,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 89, no. 8, pp. 1482–1491, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. R. Morse, L. Giangregorio, R. A. Battaglino et al., “VA-Based Survey of Osteoporosis Management in Spinal Cord Injury,” PM and R, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 240–244, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. B. C. Tellis, J. A. Szivek, C. L. Bliss, D. S. Margolis, R. K. Vaidyanathan, and P. Calvert, “Trabecular scaffolds created using micro CT guided fused deposition modeling,” Materials Science and Engineering C, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 171–178, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. Chappard, M. F. Baslé, E. Legrand, and M. Audran, “New laboratory tools in the assessment of bone quality,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 2225–2240, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. W. Hamrick, A. C. McPherron, C. O. Lovejoy, and J. Hudson, “Femoral morphology and cross-sectional geometry of adult myostatin-deficient mice,” Bone, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 343–349, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. H. Turner, “Bone strength: current concepts,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1068, pp. 429–446, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. I. D. McCarthy, Z. Bloomer, A. Gall, R. Keen, and M. Ferguson-Pell, “Changes in the structural and material properties of the tibia in patients with spinal cord injury,” Spinal Cord, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 333–337, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Zamarioli, R. A. Battaglino, L. R. Morse et al., “Standing frame and electrical stimulation therapies partially preserve bone strength in a rodent model of acute spinal cord injury,” The American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 402–410, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S.-D. Jiang, L.-S. Jiang, and L.-Y. Dai, “Changes in bone mass, bone structure, bone biomechanical properties, and bone metabolism after spinal cord injury: a 6-month longitudinal study in growing rats,” Calcified Tissue International, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 167–175, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S.-D. Jiang, L.-S. Jiang, and L.-Y. Dai, “Effects of spinal cord injury on osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis and gene expression profiling in osteoblasts in young rats,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 339–349, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. D. Jiang, C. Shen, L. S. Jiang, and L. Y. Dai, “Differences of bone mass and bone structure in osteopenic rat models caused by spinal cord injury and ovariectomy,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 743–750, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Rittweger, V. L. Goosey-Tolfrey, G. Cointry, and J. L. Ferretti, “Structural analysis of the human tibia in men with spinal cord injury by tomographic (pQCT) serial scans,” Bone, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 511–518, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. F. Capozza, S. Feldman, P. Mortarino et al., “Structural analysis of the human tibia by tomographic (pQCT) serial scans,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 216, no. 4, pp. 470–481, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. T. Ragnarsson and G. H. Sell, “Lower extremity fractures after spinal cord injury: a retrospective study,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 418–423, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. D. Byron, J. Borke, J. Yu, D. Pashley, C. J. Wingard, and M. Hamrick, “Effects of increased muscle mass on mouse sagittal suture morphology and mechanics,” Anatomical Record A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology, vol. 279, no. 1, pp. 676–684, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. Arounleut, P. Bialek, L. Liang et al., “A myostatin inhibitor (propeptide-Fc) increases muscle mass and muscle fiber size in aged mice but does not increase bone density or bone strength,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 898–904, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. E. D. de Bruin, P. Frey-Rindova, R. E. Herzog, V. Dietz, M. A. Dambacher, and E. Stüssi, “Changes of tibia bone properties after spinal cord injury: effects of early intervention,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 214–220, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Y. Dionyssiotis, G. P. Lyritis, A. F. Mavrogenis, and P. J. Papagelopoulos, “Factors influencing bone loss in paraplegia,” Hippokratia, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 54–59, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Goemaere, M. Van Laere, P. De Neve, and J. M. Kaufman, “Bone mineral status in paraplegic patients who do or do not perform standing,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 138–143, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Bélanger, R. B. Stein, G. D. Wheeler, T. Gordon, and B. Leduc, “Electrical stimulation: can it increase muscle strength and reverse osteopenia in spinal cord injured individuals?” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 81, no. 8, pp. 1090–1098, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Chen, C. Lai, W. P. Chan, M. Huang, H. Tsai, and J. J. Chen, “Increases in bone mineral density after functional electrical stimulation cycling exercises in spinal cord injured patients,” Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 27, no. 22, pp. 1337–1341, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. L. Groah, A. M. Lichy, A. V. Libin, and I. Ljungberg, “Intensive electrical stimulation attenuates femoral bone loss in acute spinal cord injury,” PM&R, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 1080–1087, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. K. Shields and S. Dudley-Javoroski, “Musculoskeletal plasticity after acute spinal cord injury: effects of long-term neuromuscular electrical stimulation training,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 2380–2390, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Frotzler, S. Coupaud, C. Perret et al., “High-volume FES-cycling partially reverses bone loss in people with chronic spinal cord injury,” Bone, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 169–176, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. J. Eng, S. M. Levins, A. F. Townson, D. Mah-Jones, J. Bremner, and G. Huston, “Use of prolonged standing for individuals with spinal cord injuries,” Physical Therapy, vol. 81, no. 8, pp. 1392–1399, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. Eser, A. Frotzler, Y. Zehnder, H. Schiessl, and J. Denoth, “Assessment of anthropometric, systemic, and lifestyle factors influencing bone status in the legs of spinal cord injured individuals,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 26–34, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. M. Giangregorio, C. E. Webber, S. M. Phillips et al., “Can body weight supported treadmill training increase bone mass and reverse muscle atrophy in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury?” Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 283–291, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. F. Kunkel, A. M. E. Scremin, B. Eisenberg, J. F. Garcia, S. Roberts, and S. Martinez, “Effect of “standing” on spasticity, contracture, and osteoporosis in paralyzed males,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 73–78, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. T. Lauer, B. T. Smith, M. J. Mulcahey, R. R. Betz, and T. E. Johnston, “Effects of cycling and/or electrical stimulation on bone mineral density in children with spinal cord injury,” Spinal Cord, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 917–923, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. J. Pacy, R. Hesp, D. A. Halliday, D. Katz, G. Cameron, and J. Reeve, “Muscle and bone in paraplegic patients, and the effect of functional electrical stimulation,” Clinical Science, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 481–487, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. M. Rodgers, R. M. Glaser, S. F. Figoni et al., “Musculoskeletal responses of spinal cord injured individuals to functional neuromuscular stimulation-induced knee extension exercise training,” Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 19–26, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus