BioMed Research International / 2014 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone: An Emerging Anti-Inflammatory Antimicrobial Peptide

Table 2

Melanocortin receptors (MCRs), their agonists, function, signaling system, and site of expression.

MCRs typeDistributionFunctionAgonistsSignaling systemReferences

MC1RPigmentation, regulation of skin physiology, anti-inflammation, painα-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH and its analogues (MT I, MT II)cAMP-PKA pathway, Ca++ signaling [1, 3, 4, 2932]
MC2RAdrenal cortex, murine adipocytes, skin, melanoma cellsAdrenal steroids secretionACTHcAMP-PKA pathway[1, 3, 4]
MC3RCNS, stomach, kidneys, heart, gut, thymus, placentaFeeding, energy homeostasis and anti-inflammationACTH and γ-MSHcAMP-PKA, MAPK and IP/Ca++ signaling [1, 3, 29, 33]
MC4RCNSAnti-inflammatory, control of feeding and sexual behaviors, energy homeostasisα-MSH, ACTHcAMP-PKA and MAPK[1, 3, 31, 33]
MC5RCNS and many peripheral tissues, exocrine glands, spleen, skin, lung, sexual organs, adipose tissues.Exocrine secretion, lipolysis, regulation of body temperatureACTH(1–24), α-MSH, MT I & MT IIcAMP-PKA and Jak/STAT phosphorylation pathway [1, 3, 29, 33]

Mitogen activated protein kinase: (MAPK), Protein kinase A: (PKA), ionositol phosphate: (IP), and cyclic AMP: (cAMP).

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