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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 890697, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/890697
Review Article

Novel Tools for Prostate Cancer Prognosis, Diagnosis, and Follow-Up

Physiology Laboratory, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Mikras Asias 75, 11527 Athens, Greece

Received 7 February 2014; Accepted 9 April 2014; Published 4 May 2014

Academic Editor: Giovanni Luca Gravina

Copyright © 2014 Andreas Dimakakos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the main diagnostic tool when it comes to prostate cancer but it possesses serious limitations. Therefore, there is an urgent need for more sensitive and specific biomarkers for prostate cancer prognosis and patient follow-up. Recent advances led to the discovery of many novel diagnostic/prognostic techniques and provided us with many worthwhile candidates. This paper briefly reviews the most promising biomarkers with respect to their implementation in screening, early detection, diagnostic confirmation, prognosis, and prediction of therapeutic response or monitoring disease and recurrence; and their use as possible therapeutic targets. This review also examines the possible future directions in the field of prostate cancer marker research.