Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 890697, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/890697
Review Article

Novel Tools for Prostate Cancer Prognosis, Diagnosis, and Follow-Up

Physiology Laboratory, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Mikras Asias 75, 11527 Athens, Greece

Received 7 February 2014; Accepted 9 April 2014; Published 4 May 2014

Academic Editor: Giovanni Luca Gravina

Copyright © 2014 Andreas Dimakakos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. D. Baade, D. R. Youlden, and L. J. Krnjacki, “International epidemiology of prostate cancer: geographical distribution and secular trends,” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 171–184, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. N. Thalmann, P. E. Anezinis, S.-M. Chang et al., “Androgen-independent cancer progression and bone metastasis in the LNCaP model of human prostate cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 2577–2581, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. A. Klein, “Opportunities for prevention of prostate cancer: genetics, chemoprevention, and dietary intervention,” Reviews in Urology, vol. 5, supplement 4, pp. S18–S28, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  4. I. M. Thompson, “PSA: a biomarker for disease. A biomarker for clinical trials. How useful is it?” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 136, no. 10, p. 2704, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. U. H. Stenman, J. Leinonen, H. Alfthan, S. Rannikko, K. Tuhkanen, and O. Alfthan, “A complex between prostate-specific antigen and α1-antichymotrypsin is the major form of prostate-specific antigen in serum of patients with prostatic cancer: assay of the complex improves clinical sensitivity for cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 222–226, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. L. Andriole Jr., “PSA screening and prostate cancer risk reduction,” Urologic Oncology, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 936–937, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  7. M. J. Barry, “Evaluation of symptoms and quality of life in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Urology, vol. 58, supplement 6, pp. 25–32, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. H. Schröder, “PSA screening—a review of recent studies,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 402–404, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. I. M. Thompson, C. Chi, D. P. Ankerst et al., “Effect of finasteride on the sensitivity of PSA for detecting prostate cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 98, no. 16, pp. 1128–1133, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. D. Mikolajczyk and H. G. Rittenhouse, “Pro PSA: A more cancer specific form of prostate specific antigen for the early detection of prostate cancer,” Keio Journal of Medicine, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 86–91, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Sharma, “. Tumor markers in clinical practice: general principles and guidelines. Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology,” Official Journal of Indian Society of Medical & Paediatric Oncology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  12. S. Varambally, J. Yu, B. Laxman et al., “Integrative genomic and proteomic analysis of prostate cancer reveals signatures of metastatic progression,” Cancer Cell, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 393–406, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. J. Bradford, S. A. Tomlins, X. Wang, and A. M. Chinnaiyan, “Molecular markers of prostate cancer,” Urologic Oncology, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 538–551, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. F. Shariat, A. Semjonow, H. Lilja, C. Savage, A. J. Vickers, and A. Bjartell, “Tumor markers in prostate cancer I: blood-based markers,” Acta Oncologica, vol. 50, supplement 1, pp. 61–75, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. K. Troyer, M. L. Beckett, and G. L. Wright Jr., “Detection and characterization of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in tissue extracts and body fluids,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 552–558, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Q. Ren, Z. Q. Chen, L. Zheng, Q. Chen, H. Li, and H. G. Zhu, “Correlation study of expression levels of prostate-specific membrane antigen and prostate-specific antigen with Gleason score of prostate carcinoma,” Zhonghua Zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology], vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 735–738, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. P. Murphy, G. M. Kenny, H. Ragde et al., “Measurement of serum prostate-specific membrane antigen, a new prognostic marker for prostate cancer,” Urology, vol. 51, supplement 5, pp. 89–97, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. Mhawech-Fauceglia, S. Zhang, L. Terracciano et al., “Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) protein expression in normal and neoplastic tissues and its sensitivity and specificity in prostate adenocarcinoma: An immunohistochemical study using mutiple tumour tissue microarray technique,” Histopathology, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 472–483, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. Kurek, G. Nunez, N. Tselis et al., “Prognostic value of combined “triple”-reverse transcription-PCR analysis for prostate-specific antigen, human kallikrein 2, and prostate-specific membrane antigen mRNA in peripheral blood and lymph nodes of prostate cancer patients,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 10, no. 17, pp. 5808–5814, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. C. Gong, S. S. Chang, M. Sadelain, N. H. Bander, and W. D. W. Heston, “Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-specific monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of prostate and other cancers,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 483–490, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. C. Chu, C. K. Chuang, Y. F. Liou, R. D. Tzou, H. C. Lee, and C. F. Sun, “The use of real-time quantitative PCR to detect circulating prostate-specific membrane antigen mRNA in patients with prostate carcinoma,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1022, pp. 157–162, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Z. Zhigang and S. Wenlv, “Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) expression in human prostate cancer tissues: implications for prostate carcinogenesis and progression of prostate cancer,” Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 414–419, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  23. Z. Gu, G. Thomas, J. Yamashiro et al., “Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) expression increases with high gleason score, advanced stage and bone metastasis in prostate cancer,” Oncogene, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1288–1296, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B. Paul, R. Dhir, D. Landsittel, M. R. Hitchens, and R. H. Getzenberg, “Detection of prostate cancer with a blood-based assay for early prostate cancer antigen,” Cancer Research, vol. 65, no. 10, pp. 4097–4100, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Varambally, S. M. Dhanasekaran, M. Zhou et al., “The polycomb group protein EZH2 is involved in progression of prostate cancer,” Nature, vol. 419, no. 6907, pp. 624–629, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. Hienert, J. C. Kirchheimer, H. Pfluger, and B. R. Binder, “Urokinase-type plasminogen activator as a marker for the formation of distant metastases in prostatic carcinomas,” Journal of Urology, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 1466–1469, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. H. Miyake, I. Hara, K. Yamanaka, S. Arakawa, and S. Kamidono, “Elevation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor densities as new predictors of disease progression and prognosis in men with prostate cancer,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 535–541, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. F. Shariat, C. G. Roehrborn, J. D. McConnell et al., “Association of the circulating levels of the urokinase system of plasminogen activation with the presence of prostate cancer and invasion, progression, and metastasis,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 349–355, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Yu, J. Yu, R.-S. Mani et al., “An integrated network of androgen receptor, polycomb, and TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions in prostate cancer progression,” Cancer Cell, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 443–454, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. N. Cerveira, F. R. Ribeiro, A. Peixoto et al., “TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion causing ERG overexpression precedes chromosome copy number changes in prostate carcinomas and paired HGPIN lesions,” Neoplasia, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 826–832, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Park, S. A. Tomlins, K. M. Mudaliar et al., “Antibody-based detection of ERG rearrangement-positive prostate cancer,” Neoplasia, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 590–598, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. J. Van Leenders, J. L. Boormans, C. J. Vissers et al., “Antibody EPR3864 is specific for ERG genomic fusions in prostate cancer: implications for pathological practice,” Modern Pathology, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1128–1138, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. Gasi Tandefelt, J. Boormans, K. Hermans, and J. Trapman, “ETS fusion genes in prostate cancer,” Endocrine-Related Cancer, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. D. Hessels, F. P. Smit, G. W. Verhaegh, J. A. Witjes, E. B. Cornel, and J. A. Schalken, “Detection of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcripts and prostate cancer antigen 3 in urinary sediments may improve diagnosis of prostate cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 13, no. 17, pp. 5103–5108, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. S. Salami, F. Schmidt, B. Laxman et al., “Combining urinary detection of TMPRSS2:ERG and CaP3 with serum PSA to predict diagnosis of prostate cancer,” Urologic Oncology, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 566–571, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. Hessels and J. A. Schalken, “Urinary biomarkers for prostate cancer: a review,” Asian Journal of Andrology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 333–339, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  37. L. D. Truong, D. Kadmon, B. K. McCune, K. C. Flanders, P. T. Scardino, and T. C. Thompson, “Association of transforming growth factor-β1 with prostate cancer: an immunohistochemical study,” Human Pathology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 4–9, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. C. Thompson, L. D. Truong, T. L. Timme et al., “Transforming growth factor beta 1 as a biomarker for prostate cancer,” Journal of cellular biochemistry Supplement, vol. 16, pp. 54–61, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. V. Ivanović, M. Demajo, K. Krtolica et al., “Elevated plasma TGF-β1 levels correlate with decreased survival of metastatic breast cancer patients,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 371, no. 1-2, pp. 191–193, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. M. Grant and N. Kyprianou, “Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in prostate growth and tumor progression,” Translational Andrology and Urology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 202–211, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  41. T. R. Samatov, A. G. Tonevitsky, and U. Schumacher, “Epithelial-mesenchymal transition: focus on metastatic cascade, alternative splicing, non-coding RNAs and modulating compounds,” Molecular Cancer, vol. 12, article 107, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. S. F. Shariat, M. Shalev, A. Menesses-Diaz et al., “Preoperative plasma levels of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1 strongly predict progression in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 2856–2864, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Y. Matuo, N. Nishi, H. Takasuka et al., “Production and significance of TGF-β in AT-3 metastatic cell line established from the Dunning rat prostatic adenocarcinoma,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 166, no. 2, pp. 840–847, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. Tan, X. Wu, M. Hou et al., “Interleukin-6 polymorphism is associated with more aggressive prostate cancer,” Journal of Urology, vol. 174, no. 2, pp. 753–756, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D. Giri, M. Ozen, and M. Ittmann, “Interleukin-6 is an autocrine growth factor in human prostate cancer,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 159, no. 6, pp. 2159–2165, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. F. Shariat, M. W. Kattan, E. Traxel et al., “Association of pre- and postoperative plasma levels of transforming growth factor beta(1) and interleukin 6 and its soluble receptor with prostate cancer progression,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1992–1999, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. Voulgari and A. Pintzas, “Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer metastasis: Mechanisms, markers and strategies to overcome drug resistance in the clinic,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1796, no. 2, pp. 75–90, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. K. Gravdal, O. J. Halvorsen, S. A. Haukaas, and L. A. Akslen, “A switch from E-cadherin to N-cadherin expression indicates epithelial to mesenchymal transition and is of strong and independent importance for the progress of prostate cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 13, no. 23, pp. 7003–7011, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. Sethi, J. Macoska, W. Chen, and F. H. Sarkar, “Molecular signature of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human prostate cancer bone metastasis,” The American Journal of Translational Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 90–99, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. B. M. Anose, L. Lagoo, and J. Schwendinger, “Characterization of androgen regulation of ZEB-1 and PSA in 22RV1 prostate cancer cells,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 617, pp. 541–546, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. J. Armstrong, M. S. Marengo, S. Oltean et al., “Circulating tumor cells from patients with advanced prostate and breast cancer display both epithelial and mesenchymal markers,” Molecular Cancer Research, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 997–1007, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. V. V. Lukyanchuk, H. Friess, J. Kleeff et al., “Detection of circulating tumor cells by cytokeratin 20 and prostate stem cell antigen RT-PCR in blood of patients with gastrointestinal cancers,” Anticancer Research, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 2711–2716, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. O. Camara, M. Rengsberger, A. Egbe et al., “The relevance of circulating epithelial tumor cells (CETC) for therapy monitoring during neoadjuvant (primary systemic) chemotherapy in breast cancer,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1484–1492, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. Armakolas, Z. Panteleakou, A. Nezos et al., “Detection of the circulating tumor cells in cancer patients,” Future Oncology, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1849–1856, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Z. Panteleakou, P. Lembessis, A. Sourla et al., “Detection of circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer patients: methodological pitfalls and clinical relevance,” Molecular Medicine, vol. 15, no. 3-4, pp. 101–114, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Thalgott, B. Rack, T. Maurer et al., “Detection of circulating tumor cells in different stages of prostate cancer,” Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, vol. 139, no. 5, pp. 755–763, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  57. A. Rolle, R. Günzel, U. Pachmann, B. Willen, K. Höffken, and K. Pachmann, “Increase in number of circulating disseminated epithelial cells after surgery for non-small cell lung cancer monitored by MAINTRAC® is a predictor for relapse: a preliminary report,” World Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 3, article 18, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. K. Pachmann, O. Camara, A. Kavallaris et al., “Monitoring the response of circulating epithelial tumor cells to adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer allows detection of patients at risk of early relapse,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1208–1215, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Pollak, “Insulin, insulin-like growth factors and neoplasia,” Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 625–638, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. E. J. Gallagher and D. LeRoith, “The proliferating role of insulin and insulin-like growth factors in cancer,” Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 610–618, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. H. Werner and I. Bruchim, “IGF-1 and BRCA1 signalling pathways in familial cancer,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. e537–e544, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  62. J. M. Chan, M. J. Stampfer, J. Ma et al., “Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 as predictors of advanced-stage prostate cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 94, no. 14, pp. 1099–1106, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. G. O. Hellawell, G. D. H. Turner, D. R. Davies, R. Poulsom, S. F. Brewster, and V. M. Macaulay, “Expression of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor is up-regulated in primary prostate cancer and commonly persists in metastatic disease,” Cancer Research, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 2942–2950, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. D. W. Voskuil, A. Bosma, A. Vrieling, M. A. Rookus, and L. J. Van 'T Veer, “Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-system mRNA quantities in normal and tumor breast tissue of women with sporadic and familial breast cancer risk,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 225–233, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. C. J. Ryan, C. M. Haqq, J. Simko et al., “Expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in local and metastatic prostate cancer,” Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 134–140, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. G. Koliakos, D. Chatzivasiliou, T. Dimopoulos et al., “The significance of PSA/IGF-1 ratio in differentiating benign prostate hyperplasia from prostate cancer,” Disease Markers, vol. 16, no. 3-4, pp. 143–146, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. M. Carboni, A. V. Lee, D. L. Hadsell et al., “Tumor development by transgenic expression of a constitutively active insulin-like growth factor I receptor,” Cancer Research, vol. 65, no. 9, pp. 3781–3787, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. S. A. Rosenzweig and H. S. Atreya, “Defining the pathway to insulin-like growth factor system targeting in cancer,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 80, no. 8, pp. 1115–1124, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. E. R. King and K.-K. Wong, “Insulin-like growth factor: current concepts and new developments in cancer therapy,” Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 14–30, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. Y. Wang, J. Hailey, D. Williams et al., “Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) signaling and tumor cell growth by a fully human neutralizing anti-IGF-IR antibody,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1214–1221, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. F. J. Calzone, E. Cajulis, Y. A. Chung, M. M. Tsai, P. Mitchell, J. Lu et al., “Epitope-specific mechanisms of IGF1R inhibition by ganitumab,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 2, Article ID e55135, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  72. A. G. Papatsoris, M. V. Karamouzis, and A. G. Papavassiliou, “Novel insights into the implication of the IGF-1 network in prostate cancer,” Trends in Molecular Medicine, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 52–55, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. N. Pollak, E. S. Schernhammer, and S. E. Hankinson, “Insulin-like growth factors and neoplasia,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 505–518, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. P. De Meyts and J. Whittaker, “Structural biology of insulin and IGF1 receptors: implications for drug design,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 1, no. 10, pp. 769–783, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. C. García-Echeverría, M. A. Pearson, A. Marti et al., “In vivo antitumor activity of NVP-AEW541—a novel, potent, and selective inhibitor of the IGF-IR kinase,” Cancer Cell, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 231–239, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. A. Bielen, L. Perryman, G. M. Box et al., “Enhanced efficacy of IGF1R inhibition in pediatric glioblastoma by combinatorial targeting of PDGFRα/β,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1407–1418, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. A. Arcaro, “Targeting the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in human cancer,” Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 4, p. 30, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  78. J. Abraham, S. I. Prajapati, K. Nishijo et al., “Evasion mechanisms to Igf1r inhibition in rhabdomyosarcoma,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 697–707, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. B. O. Nilsson, L. Carlsson, A. Larsson, and G. Ronquist, “Autoantibodies to prostasomes as new markers for prostate cancer,” Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. S. V. Bradley, K. I. Oravecz-Wilson, G. Bougeard et al., “Serum antibodies to Huntingtin interacting protein-1: a new blood test for prostate cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 65, no. 10, pp. 4126–4133, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. O. J. Finn, “Immune response as a biomarker for cancer detection and a lot more,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 353, no. 12, pp. 1288–1290, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J. E. Hansen, G. Chan, Y. Liu et al., “Targeting cancer with a lupus autoantibody,” Science Translational Medicine, vol. 4, no. 157, Article ID 157ra42, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  83. X. Wang, J. Yu, A. Sreekumar et al., “Autoantibody signatures in prostate cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 353, no. 12, pp. 1224–1235, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. B. S. Reis, A. A. Jungbluth, D. Frosina et al., “Prostate cancer progression correlates with increased humoral immune response to a human endogenous retrovirus GAG protein,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 19, no. 22, pp. 6112–6125, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  85. H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, and M. Snyder, “Proteomics,” Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol. 72, pp. 783–812, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. E. Pin, C. Fredolini, and E. F. Petricoin III, “The role of proteomics in prostate cancer research: biomarker discovery and validation. .,” Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 524–538, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  87. Y. Hathout, “Approaches to the study of the cell secretome,” Expert Review of Proteomics, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 239–248, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. B. J. Trock, “Application of metabolomics to prostate cancer,” Urologic Oncology, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 572–581, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. M. J. Roberts, H. J. Schirra, M. F. Lavin, and R. A. Gardiner, “Metabolomics: a novel approach to early and noninvasive prostate cancer detection,” Korean Journal of Urology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 79–89, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. L. C. Costello and R. B. Franklin, “Concepts of citrate production and secretion by prostate 1. Metabolic relationships,” Prostate, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 25–46, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. V. Kumar, D. K. Dwivedi, and N. R. Jagannathan, “High-resolution NMR spectroscopy of human body fluids and tissues in relation to prostate cancer,” NMR in Biomedicine, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 80–89, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  92. E. A. Struys, A. C. Heijboer, J. van Moorselaar, C. Jakobs, and M. A. Blankenstein, “Serum sarcosine is not a marker for prostate cancer,” Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 47, no. 3, p. 282, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. A. Sreekumar, L. M. Poisson, T. M. Rajendiran et al., “Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression,” Nature, vol. 457, no. 7231, pp. 910–914, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. M. Pavlou and E. P. Diamandis, “The search for new prostate cancer biomarkers continues,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 1277–1279, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. J. Chen, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Sensitive determination of the potential biomarker sarcosine for prostate cancer by LC-MS with N, N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide derivatization,” Journal of Separation Science, vol. 37, no. 1-2, pp. 14–19, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  96. M. G. Swanson, D. B. Vigneron, Z. L. Tabatabai et al., “Proton HR-MAS spectroscopy and quantitative pathologic analysis of MRI/3D-MRSI-targeted postsurgical prostate tissues,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 944–954, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. M. G. Swanson, K. R. Keshari, Z. L. Tabatabai et al., “Quantification of choline- and ethanolamine-containing metabolites in human prostate tissues using1H HR-MAS total correlation spectroscopy,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 33–40, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. T. Kobus, A. J. Wright, E. Weiland, A. Heerschap, and T. W. Scheenen, “Metabolite ratios in H MR spectroscopic imaging of the prostate,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  99. T. Yoneyama, U. Tateishi, T. Terauchi, and T. Inoue, “Correlation of metabolic tumor volume and C-choline uptake with the pathology of prostate cancer: evaluation by use of simultaneously recorded MR and PET images,” Japanese Journal of Radiology, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 155–163, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  100. J. R. Dobosy, J. L. W. Roberts, V. X. Fu, and D. F. Jarrard, “The expanding role of epigenetics in the development, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Journal of Urology, vol. 177, no. 3, pp. 822–831, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. C. Jerónimo, P. J. Bastian, A. Bjartell et al., “Epigenetics in prostate cancer: biologic and clinical relevance,” European Urology, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 753–766, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. T. A. Chan, S. Glockner, M. Y. Joo et al., “Convergence of mutation and epigenetic alterations identifies common genes in cancer that predict for poor prognosis,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 5, no. 5, article e114, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. T. Wu, E. Giovannucci, J. Welge, P. Mallick, W.-Y. Tang, and S.-M. Ho, “Measurement of GSTP1 promoter methylation in body fluids may complement PSA screening: A meta-analysis,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 65–73, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. M. Nakayama, C. J. Bennett, J. L. Hicks et al., “Hypermethylation of the human glutathione S-transferase-π gene (GSTP1) CpG island is present in a subset of proliferative inflammatory atrophy lesions but not in normal or hyperplastic epithelium of the prostate: a detailed study using laser-capture microdissection,” The American Journal of Pathology, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 923–933, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. L. C. Li, S. T. Okino, and R. Dahiya, “DNA methylation in prostate cancer,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1704, no. 2, pp. 87–102, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. H. Enokida, H. Shiina, S. Urakami et al., “Multigene methylation analysis for detection and staging of prostate cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 11, no. 18, pp. 6582–6588, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. K. Kawamoto, S. T. Okino, R. F. Place et al., “Epigenetic modifications of RASSF1A gene through chromatin remodeling in prostate cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 2541–2548, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. K. Chiam, C. Ricciardelli, and T. Bianco-Miotto, “Epigenetic biomarkers in prostate cancer: current and future uses,” Cancer Letters, vol. 342, no. 2, pp. 248–256, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. H. Schwarzenbach, D. S. B. Hoon, and K. Pantel, “Cell-free nucleic acids as biomarkers in cancer patients,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 426–437, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. D. B. Seligson, S. Horvath, T. Shi et al., “Global histone modification patterns predict risk of prostate cancer recurrence,” Nature, vol. 435, no. 7046, pp. 1262–1266, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. H. Valadi, K. Ekström, A. Bossios, M. Sjöstrand, J. J. Lee, and J. O. Lötvall, “Exosome-mediated transfer of mRNAs and microRNAs is a novel mechanism of genetic exchange between cells,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 654–659, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. K. Wang, S. Zhang, J. Weber, D. Baxter, and D. J. Galas, “Export of microRNAs and microRNA-protective protein by mammalian cells,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 38, no. 20, pp. 7248–7259, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. J. C. Brase, D. Wuttig, R. Kuner, and H. Sültmann, “Serum microRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers for cancer,” Molecular Cancer, vol. 9, article 306, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. R. J. Bryant, T. Pawlowski, J. W. F. Catto et al., “Changes in circulating microRNA levels associated with prostate cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 768–774, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. P. P. Osin and S. R. Lakhani, “The pathology of familial breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 36–40, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. L. M. Berstein, “Endocrinology of the wild and mutant BRCA1 gene and types of hormonal carcinogenesis,” Future Oncology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 23–39, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. H. Eerola, P. Heikkilä, A. Tamminen, K. Aittomäki, C. Blomqvist, and H. Nevanlinna, “Relationship of patients' age to histopathological features of breast tumours in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and mutation-negative breast cancer families,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. R465–R469, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. C. M. Barnett, M. C. Heinrich, J. Lim, D. Nelson, C. Beadling, A. Warrick et al., “Genetic Profiling to Determine Risk of Relapse Free Survival in High-risk Localized Prostate Cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1306–1312, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  119. J. R. Schoenborn, P. Nelson, and M. Fang, “Genomic profiling defines subtypes of prostate cancer with the potential for therapeutic stratification,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 19, no. 15, pp. 4058–4066, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  120. B. D. Hudson, K. S. Kulp, and G. G. Loots, “Prostate cancer invasion and metastasis: insights from mining genomic data,” Briefings in Functional Genomics, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 397–410, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  121. A. Amaro, A. I. Esposito, A. Gallina, M. Nees, G. Angelini, A. Albini et al., “Validation of proposed prostate cancer biomarkers with gene expression data: a long road to travel,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar