Review Article

Neurobiological Mechanisms of Pelvic Pain

Figure 1

Innervation of pelvic organs. Sensory axons innervating the vagina reach the spinal cord via pelvic nerves and terminate in sacral spinal cord segments (S2-S4). Axons innervating the uterus travel in the hypogastric nerves and terminate in the thoracolumbar spinal cord segments (T10-L2). The region surrounding the cervix represents a transitional zone and is innervated by fibers that travel in both nerves. Sensory axons from the clitoris and vulva follow the pudendal nerves to sacral spinal cord. Note that sensory information from all pelvic organs may converge on to the same spinal cord neural circuits. DRG (dorsal root ganglia). Reproduced from Jobling et al., 2014, with permission [61].