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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 912346, 5 pages
Research Article

Putative Bronchopulmonary Flagellated Protozoa in Immunosuppressed Patients

1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Celal Bayar University, 45030 Manisa, Turkey
2Department of Chest Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Celal Bayar University, 45030 Manisa, Turkey

Received 3 January 2014; Revised 17 March 2014; Accepted 17 March 2014; Published 3 April 2014

Academic Editor: Fabio Ribeiro Braga

Copyright © 2014 Ali Ahmet Kilimcioglu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Flagellated protozoa that cause bronchopulmonary symptoms in humans are commonly neglected. These protozoal forms which were presumed to be “flagellated protozoa” have been previously identified in immunosuppressed patients in a number of studies, but have not been certainly classified so far. Since no human cases of bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa were reported from Turkey, we aimed to investigate these putative protozoa in immunosuppressed patients who are particularly at risk of infectious diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of 110 immunosuppressed adult patients who were admitted to the Department of Chest Diseases, Hafsa Sultan Hospital of Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey, were examined in terms of parasites by light microscopy. Flagellated protozoal forms were detected in nine (8.2%) of 110 cases. Metronidazole (500 mg b.i.d. for 30 days) was given to all positive cases and a second bronchoscopy was performed at the end of the treatment, which revealed no parasites. In conclusion, immunosuppressed patients with bronchopulmonary symptoms should attentively be examined with regard to flagellated protozoa which can easily be misidentified as epithelial cells.