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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 925350, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/925350
Review Article

FOXO Transcription Factors: Their Clinical Significance and Regulation

1Department of Implantology, School of Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
2Department of Periodontics, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA

Received 4 November 2013; Accepted 17 January 2014; Published 3 April 2014

Academic Editor: Eric W. Lam

Copyright © 2014 Yu Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Members of the class O of forkhead box transcription factors (FOXO) have important roles in metabolism, cellular proliferation, stress resistance, and apoptosis. The activity of FOXOs is tightly regulated by posttranslational modification, including phosphorylation, acetylation, and ubiquitylation. Activation of cell survival pathways such as phosphoinositide-3-kinase/AKT/IKK or RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylates FOXOs at different sites which regulate FOXOs nuclear localization or degradation. FOXO transcription factors are upregulated in a number of cell types including hepatocytes, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, pericytes, and cardiac myocytes. They are involved in a number of pathologic and physiologic processes that include proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, metabolism, inflammation, cytokine expression, immunity, differentiation, and resistance to oxidative stress. These processes impact a number of clinical conditions such as carcinogenesis, diabetes, diabetic complications, cardiovascular disease, host response, and wound healing. In this paper, we focus on the potential role of FOXOs in different disease models and the regulation of FOXOs by various stimuli.