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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 938368, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/938368
Research Article

Artificial Extracellular Matrices with Oversulfated Glycosaminoglycan Derivatives Promote the Differentiation of Osteoblast-Precursor Cells and Premature Osteoblasts

1Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Fiedlerstraße 42, 01307 Dresden, Germany
2Biomaterials Department, INNOVENT e. V., Prüssingstraße 27 B, 07745 Jena, Germany
3Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, Budapester Straße 27, 01069 Dresden, Germany
4Division of Endocrinology and Bone Diseases, Department of Medicine III, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany

Received 13 January 2014; Revised 7 April 2014; Accepted 8 April 2014; Published 28 April 2014

Academic Editor: Bernd Stadlinger

Copyright © 2014 Ute Hempel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG) are components of the bone marrow stem cell niche and to a minor extent of mature bone tissue with important functions in regulating stem cell lineage commitment and differentiation. We anticipated that artificial extracellular matrices (aECM) composed of collagen I and synthetically oversulfated GAG derivatives affect preferentially the differentiation of osteoblast-precursor cells and early osteoblasts. A set of gradually sulfated chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronan derivatives was used for the preparation of aECM. All these matrices were analysed with human bone marrow stromal cells to identify the most potent aECM and to determine the influence of the degree and position of sulfate groups and the kind of disaccharide units on the osteogenic differentiation. Oversulfated GAG derivatives with a sulfate group at the C-6 position of the N-acetylglycosamine revealed the most pronounced proosteogenic effect as determined by tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition. A subset of the aECM was further analysed with different primary osteoblasts and cell lines reflecting different maturation stages to test whether the effect of sulfated GAG derivatives depends on the maturation status of the cells. It was shown that the proosteogenic effect of aECM was most prominent in early osteoblasts.