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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 945127, 8 pages
Review Article

Roles of Bone-Marrow-Derived Cells and Inflammatory Cytokines in Neointimal Hyperplasia after Vascular Injury

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Showa University School of Medicine, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan

Received 4 October 2013; Revised 22 November 2013; Accepted 21 December 2013; Published 14 January 2014

Academic Editor: Yoshitaka Iso

Copyright © 2014 Makoto Shoji et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Bone-marrow-derived cells can generate vascular progenitor cells that contribute to pathological remodeling in models of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We created models of vascular injury in mice with bone marrow transplants (BMT) to determine relationships between bone-marrow-derived cells and subsequent biological factors. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) seemed to inhibit the inflammatory reaction and help stabilize injured vascular regions through mobilizing more endogenous bone-marrow-derived (EBMD) cells to the peripheral circulation. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized more EBMD cells to the peripheral circulation, and they accumulated on the injured side of the vascular lumen. The inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-6 mobilized EBMD cells that play an important role in the process of neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury. These factors might comprise a mechanism that alters the transdifferentiation or paracrine capabilities of EBMD cells and are potential targets of treatment for patients with cardiovascular diseases.